2.1 - Classification of skills Learning objectives To
2.1 - Classification of skills Learning objectives To be able to describe the different types of skill classification. To be able to categorise sporting events on a skill classification continuum. To understand the types of practice using by coaches. To apply knowledge of practices to different sporting activities. Classification of skills Watch me
How are sports skills classified? Classification of skills Skill differs from ability in that it is not innate, skills are learnt. They are developed from ability after a period of practice. To produce a skilled performance, the player must practise so that the required abilities are enhanced. Classification of skills Skills are usually classified on a sliding scale called a continuum. This is a visual guide to indicate where a skill fits into a specific
category. Skill Classification Open/Closed An open skill is one that is affected by the sporting environment. The performer has to make decisions in response to their surroundings. A closed skill involves less decision making because it has
a predictable environment. The performer can take their time to execute the skill. OPEN CLOSED Think. Pair. Share - Can you name other skills and where would they fit on the continuum? Skill Classification Basic/Simple & Complex
A complex skill involves a high level of decision making and has a large cognitive or thinking element to it. COMPLEX Simple skills have a limited amount of information to process. The skill has a smaller cognitive element.
BASIC/SIMPLE Think. Pair. Share - Can you name other skills and where would they fit on the continuum? Skill Classification Organisation A low organised skill can be broken down into parts, or subroutines. LOW ORGANISED
A highly organised skill is hard to break down since it is fast in its execution. HIGH ORGANISED Think. Pair. Share - Can you name other skills and where would they fit on the continuum? Skill Classification Skills can be divided into ones that are outcome based and others that have an unpredictable outcome.
Closed Skills: These are skills that are performed in the same situation and have no variation. The skills are unaffected by the environment. The actions involved in closed skills follow a set routine or pattern of movement. Think. Pair. Share - Can you name 3 other closed skills?
Skill Classification Open Skills: These are performed in a changing environment. This can include: Opponents movements Pace of the ball Height and distance from the ball Open skills require adaptability from the performer. Think. Pair. Share - Can you name 3 other open skills?
Skill Classification Open/Closed Continuum: This continuum represents the degree with which a skill is open or closed. Open skill ________________________________ Closed skill Think. Pair. Share - Where would you place the following sports on the continuum? Practice structures The planning of coaching sessions is important for effective
learning and should take into account the nature of the task and the characteristics of the students being coached. In terms of the nature of the task, the coach must be aware of the appropriate skills classification and the best way to learn through practices.
Practice structures Skills and actions are learnt in a variety of ways. Performers will usually learn through one or more of the following ways: Practice structures Massed practice: Massed practice is when no rest intervals are given between each component of the training session. It is used when a coach wants to promote a high level of fitness. i.e. A coach putting a team
of footballers through a 1 hour fitness session none stop. Players should be able to cope with 45 minute halves. Practice structures Massed practice is appropriate for: Simple skills that demand little attention, so the performer can still focus on the task after numerous attempts. Discrete skills with a clear end. These are usually short and sharp and can be undertaken easily without a rest.
Practice structures Distributed practice: Distributed practice is when a rest interval is given to allow recuperation. Feedback, coaching and advice on technique can be given during the interval. It is suitable for: Beginners, who can focus on the next part of the skill during the break. Performers who are unfit. Performers who need
encouragement from the coach to improve motivation. Practice structures Fixed practice: Fixed practice uses repetition of the same activity to promote over-learning. This ensures that more advanced performers maintain consistency in their performance. It is appropriate for closed skills that do not require
adaptation to the environment, self- paced skills, and simple skills that have a discrete element to them. Practice structures Varied practice: Varied practice involves using different methods to achieve a learning goal, or performing a task in different situations. It aims to provide the performer with the ability to adapt a skill to a range of possible circumstances.
This method is appropriate for open skills, where the sporting environment tends to change. Varied practice is often used with beginners, because it allows them to progress when more difficult elements of the task are added to those they are already familiar with. Apply it!
What has stuck with you? Practice it! Exam questions 1.Which one of the following is NOT a type of practice structure? (1) A B C D Massed Practice
Fixed Practice Assisted Practice Variable Practice Practice it! Exam questions 2. Sports skills can be classified as open or closed skills. Explain how a coach would vary a training session when coaching open and closed skills. (3) Practice it!
Marks Scheme: 1. C 2. If a skill is closed (like a penalty) practice should be in closed conditions (1), however, if it is an open skill, the skill should be practised in pressured situations (1) so the player/team get used to using the skill under pressure of time/opposition (1). If a skill is open (like a pass during the game) practice should be in open conditions (1) it should be practised using variable practice (1) so the player/team get used to adapting the execution of the skill to match the changing circumstances of the game (1). Knowing whether a skill is open or closed means that the coach
can set up appropriate drills in training (1), this means that the players would practise closed skills in closed conditions to match the way they need to perform the skill in the game (1), this allows the performer to focus on the skill without unnecessary distractions from others (1).
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