Napoleon I (1799-1814) Europe in 1800 Napoleons rise
Napoleon I (1799-1814) Europe in 1800 Napoleons rise to power With the government in disarray, Napoleon launched a successful coup d etat (sudden seizure of power)on November 9, 1799.
He proclaimed himself First Consul [Julius Caesars title] and did away with the elected Assembly [appointing a Senate instead]. In 1802, he made himself sole Consul for Life. Two years later he proclaimed Napoleon Rules France Sets up a tax collection and banking system
Dismisses corrupt officials & establishes government run public schools Concordat: rejected Church control in national affairs Napoleonic Code. Gave the country a uniform set of laws. Allows Plebiscites on certain issues: vote of the people Code Napoleon, 1804 a a It
It divides divides civil civil law law into: into: Personal Personal status. Property. Property. The The acquisition acquisition of a
a Its Its purpose purpose was was to to reform reform the the French French legal legal code code to reflect the the principles
principles of the Fr. Revolution. Revolution. a a Create Create one one law law code code for for property.
property. Napoleon Creates an Empire Goal- to control all of Europe and Reassert his control in the Americas Annexed Austria, Netherlands, parts of Italy, and set up a puppet government in Switzerland. Battle of Austerlitz- Napoleon defeated Austria, Prussia, & Russia & forced them to sign a peace treaty Battle of Trafalgar: Britain defeats Napoleon, Napoleon gives up plans to invade Britain Napoleonic Europe
Napoleons Costly Mistakes Continental System: Napoleon sets up a blockade to prevent all trade between Britain & other European nations. The blockade FAILED as smugglers managed to bring cargo from Britain to Europe. Britain responded with their own blockade & forced neutral ships to be searched & taxed by British. The Continental System A better idea? The Peninsular War Napoleon wanted to force Portugal to accept the
Continental System Napoleon sent troops through Spainthe Spanish king objectedNapoleon removed the king & put his brother Joseph on the throne. The Spanish did not want Napoleon attacking & weakening the Catholic Church. Guerillas: Spanish peasant fighters ambushed the French troops.killing 300,000 men. The Big Blunder -- Russia The retreat from Spain came on the heels of Napoleons
failed Russian Campaign (1812-1813). Napoleon resented Russia for pulling out of Continental sys. In July, 1812 Napoleon army of 614,000 men eastward across central Europe and into Russia.
The The Russians Russians avoided avoided a a direct direct confrontation confrontation with with Napoleon. Napoleon. The The Russians
Russians abandoned abandoned their their houses houses & & burned burned their their crops crops to to the the ground, ground, leaving leaving the the French French with
with little little supplies supplies in in territory territory stripped stripped of of food. Slash and Burn!! They They retreated retreated to to Moscow, Moscow, drawing drawing the
the French French into into the the interior interior of of Russia Russia [hoping [hoping that that its its size size and and the the weather weather
would would act act as as support support for for the the Russian Russian cause]. cause]. Napoleons Troops at the Gates of Moscow
September 14, 1812 Napoleon reached Moscow, but the city had largely been abandoned. The Russians had set fire to the city. Napoleons Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat40,000 survive! Battle of Dresden (Aug., 26-27, 1813)
Coalition Troops Russian, Prussian, Austria. Napoleons forces regrouped with Polish reinforcements. 100,000 coalition casualties; 30,000 French casualties.
French victory. A turning point? Napoleons Final Defeat Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden & Austria declared war on Napoleon Napoleon raised an army but they were untrained & not prepared. Napoleon and the French forces lose.
Napoleon Abdicates! Allied forces occupied Paris on March 31, 1814. Napoleon abdicated (give up the throne) on April 6 in favor of his son, but the Allies insisted on unconditional surrender.
Treaty of Fontainbleau exiles Napolon to Elba with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs. Louis XVIII becomes leader of France. Napoleon in Exile on Elba Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) Brother of Louis XVI becomes new King The "Hundred Days"
(March 20 - June 22, `1815) Napoleon escaped Elba and rules for his 100 Days The War of the 7th Coalition France vs. Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria, Sweden, smaller German states Napoleon loses to the coalition forces at Waterloo, Belgium!! Napoleons Defeat at Waterloo (Belgium)
June 18, 1815 Napoleon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena where he will eventually die Congress of Vienna- 1815 Now that Napoleon has been removed from power, its time to put Europe back together. Led by Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria Meeting to restore legitimacy to Europe after
Napoleon tore it apart. All land conquered by Napoleon was returned to respective countries. Goal- was to reestablish a balance of power amongst the countries of Europe and have peace between the nations of Europe. Nationalism Spreads Nationalism- Feeling or sense of pride in ones country Following Napoleons reign other nations will gain this Nationalist spirit and begin revolts. Places that experience these movements: Latin America, Germany, Italy, AustriaHungary, Ottoman Empire.
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