C i t y o f P i

C i t y o f P i

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Introduction Hazardous materials may be Elements Compounds Mixtures Gaseous Liquid Solids

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Introduction They may present a direct threat to health Poison Carcinogens Toxic or highly toxic Irritants

Corrosives Sensitizers C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Introduction They may be considered dangerous because of their physical hazards

Flammable Compressed gases Explosives Organic peroxides Oxidizers Pyrophoric chemicals Cryogenic materials Radioactive materials Water-reactive materials C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n

Properties and Hazards Introduction The severity of hazards these materials present range from Insignificant Catastrophic Depends on material and quantity involved C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Introduction Exposures to hazardous materials Acute

Single occurrence Chronic Long-term Reoccurring C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Introduction Health effects from exposure Acute Short-term effects Appear within hours or days Vomiting

Diarrhea Chronic May take years to appear Cancer C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Awareness level Need to understand Basic hazards associated with different classes of hazardous materials Flammables

Corrosives Reactives Operations level Need to know how hazardous materials behave Signs and symptoms of an exposure C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Matter Substances that make up everything in the world Gas

Fluid that has neither independent shape nor volume Tend to expand indefinitely Liquid Fluid that has no independent shape but does have a specific volume Flow in accordance with the laws of gravity Solid Substance that has both a specific shape and volume (without a container) C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Flammability

Majority of hazardous materials incidents involve materials that are flammable Burn Explode Flammable hazards depend on Flash point Autoignition temperature Explosive or combustible range C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Flash Point

Minimum temperature at which a liquid or volatile solid gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface Vapors will flash Will NOT continue to burn DO NOT confuse with Fire Point C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Fire Point Temperature at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning

Temperature is usually only slightly higher than the flash point Liquids and solids themselves do not burn Vapors they produce burn As temperature increases, more vapors are produced Flammable gases have no flash point C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Autoignition Temperature/Autoignition Point

Minimum temperature to which the fuel in air must be heated to initiate self-sustained combustion No independent ignition source Spontaneously ignites Considerably higher than the flash and fire points Ignition temperature is often used synonymously C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Flammable, Explosive or Combustible Range

Percentage of the gas or vapor concentration in air that will burn or explode if ignited C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Flammable, Explosive or Combustible Range Lower explosive limit / lower flammable limit LEL / LFL Lowest concentration of a vapor/gas that will produce a flash of fire Concentrations lower than the LEL Mixture is too lean to burn

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Flammable, Explosive or Combustible Range Upper explosive limit / upper flammable limit UEL / UFL Highest concentration of a vapor / gas that will produce a flash of fire Concentrations higher than the UEL Mixture is too rich to burn C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n

Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Vapor Pressure Pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its own liquid in a closed container Pressure produced or exerted by the vapors released by a liquid Can be expressed in terms of Pounds Per Square Inch (PSI) Kilopascals (kPa) Bars Millmeters of mercury (mmHg) Usually found on MSDS Atmospheres (atm) C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt

D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Vapor Pressure The higher the temperature of a substance, the higher the vapor pressure will be Higher temperature provide more energy to a liquid Allows liquid to escape into a gas form The lower the boiling point of a substance, the higher its vapor pressure will be Used as a general gauge to tell how fast a product will evaporate under normal circumstances C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n

Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Boiling Point The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas 760 mmHg = 14.7 psi or 1 atmosphere C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion

BLEVE Also called Violent Rupture Can occur when a liquid within a container is heated Causes material inside to boil / vaporize Increases vapor pressure Exceeds the vessels ability to relieve the excess pressure Most commonly occur when flames contact a tank shell above the liquid level C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards

Hazardous Materials Properties Melting Point Temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state Freezing Point Temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid Sublimation Substances changes from a solid directly Into a gas Carbon dioxide (dry ice) Mothballs C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n

Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Vapor Density Weight of a given volume of pure gas Gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air Air has a value of 1 Vapor density <1 Vapor is lighter than air Vapor density >1 Vapor is heavier than air All vapors / gases will mix with air Spread can not be predicted exactly from vapor density

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Solubility Term expressing the percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature Used for spill clean up methods Extinguishing agents Non-water soluble Liquids remain separate from water Polar solvent Liquids mix easily with water

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Solubility Health effects Water-soluble agents Cause early upper respiratory tract irritation Partially water-soluble agents Penetrate into the lower respiratory system Delayed symptoms 12-24 hours Causes breathing difficulties Pulmonary edema Coughing up blood

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Miscibility / Immiscibility The degree or readiness to which two or more gases or liquids are able to mix with or dissolve into each other Miscible Two liquids that dissolve into each other in any proportion Immiscible Two materials that do not readily dissolve into each other

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Specific Gravity Ratio of the density of a material to the density of some standard material Heaviness of a material Water has a value of 1 Specific gravity <1 Liquid is lighter than water and will float Specific gravity >1 Liquid is heavier than water and will sink

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Reactivity Relative ability to undergo a chemical reaction with another material The fire tetrahedron Reactive triangle Fuel (Reducing Agent) Heat Oxygen (Oxidizer) Activation energy Required energy to get them started Starting a fire with a match

C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Properties Reactivity Examples Light-sensitive Heat-sensitive Shock-sensitive Polymerization Often results in a tremendous release of energy Designated with a P in the ERG Inhibitors are added in order to control or

prevent an undesired reaction C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Health hazards Directly effect an individuals health Poisons Corrosives Physical hazards Present a threat because of the materials physical properties Temperature

Radioactivity C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards U.S. National Fire Academy (NFA) Uses a simple classification system TRACEMP T Thermal R Radiological A Asphyxiation C Chemical E Etiological M Mechanical

P Psychological C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards U.S. National Fire Academy (NFA) Uses a simple classification system TRACEMP T Thermal Thermal harm is the result of exposure to extremes of heat and cold R Radiological Refers to nuclear radiation Alpha

Beta Gamma C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards U.S. National Fire Academy (NFA) Uses a simple classification system TRACEMP A Asphyxiation Interfere with oxygen flow during normal breathing Simple asphyxiants Inert gases that displace or dilute

oxygen Chemical asphyxiants Blood poisons C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards U.S. National Fire Academy (NFA) Uses a simple classification system TRACEMP C Chemical Toxic Harm depends on concentration and length of exposure

Corrosive Harm causes visible destruction C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards U.S. National Fire Academy (NFA) Uses a simple classification system TRACEMP E Etiological Harm involves exposure to a living microorganism M Mechanical Causes trauma

Shrapnel during an explosion P Psychological Causes strong emotional reaction C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Cryogenics Refrigerated liquefied gas Gases that turn into a liquid at or below -130o F Vaporize rapidly when released from container

Liquid oxygen (LOX) Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Nitrogen Helium Hydrogen Argon C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards

Radiological Nonionizing radiation Has enough energy to move atoms around but not change them chemically Radio waves Infrared radiation Microwaves Ionizing radiation The most energetic form of radiation C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards

Radiological Ionizing radiation Has sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms Disrupts chemical bonds Called Ionization Causes damage to the human body C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Radiological Alpha Particles Lose energy rapidly in matter Do not penetrate very far

Blocked by paper Beta Particles Fast moving Blocked by aluminum C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Radiological Gamma Rays Similar to X-rays Completely pass through the human body Radiation hazard

Stopped by a few inches of lead or several feet of concrete X-rays Lower energy then gamma rays Stopped by a few inches of lead or several feet of concrete C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Radiological Neutrons Ultrahigh energy particles

Highly penetrating C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Radiological Exposure pathways Inhalation Breathe radioactive materials into the lungs Can remain in the lungs for a long time Ingestion Swallowing radioactive materials Expose entire digestive system Direct Exposure

Skin contact C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Radiological Protection Strategies Time Limit exposure time to radiation source Distance Increase distance from source Doubling distance reduces the exposure by a factor of four Shielding

Lead Concrete C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials Nephrotoxic agents Affect the kidneys Hematotoxic agents Affect the blood Neurotoxic agents

Affect the nervous system Hepatotoxic agents Affect the liver C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials Lethal dose (LD) The minimum amount of a solid or liquid that will cause death Median lethal dose (LD50) Single dose of a substance that can be expected to cause death in

50% of animals Administered orally The other half isnt completely well They just didnt die Lethal dose low (LDLO or LDL) Lowest administered dose of a material capable of killing a specific test species C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials Lethal concentration (LC)

Minimum concentration of an inhaled substance in the gaseous state that will be fatal Usually within 1-4 hours May be expressed in LC50 Lethal concentration low (LCLO or LCL) Lowest concentration of a gas or vapor capable of killing a specified species over time C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH)

An atmospheric concentration of a substance that poses an immediate threat to life Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) Maximum concentration to which the majority of healthy adults can be exposed over a 40-hour workweek Time-Weighted Average (TWA) 8-hour period C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials

Permissible Exposure Limit Ceiling Limit (PEL) (C) The maximum concentration to which an employee may be exposed at any time Instantaneous Short-term Exposure Limit (STEL) The maximum concentration allowed for a 15-minute exposure C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials Irritants

Toxins that cause temporary but sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin or respiratory system Attack the mucous membranes of the body Convulsants Toxic materials that can cause convulsions Sensation of difficulty breathing Painful muscle spasms 3-30 minutes C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials

Corrosives Chemicals that destroy or burn living tissues and have destructive effects With the exception of liquid and gas fuels Corrosives comprise the largest usage class in industry Acids pH <6 Bases (Alkalis) pH 8-14 C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards

Toxic Materials Carcinogens Cancer-causing agents Mutagens Substances or agents that are capable of altering the genetic material in a living cell C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Hazardous Materials Hazards Toxic Materials Teratogens Substances or agents that are capable of causing

developmental abnormalities in utero Malformation in the fetus of a pregnant female Sensitizers Chemicals that cause the development of allergic reactions in people with repeated exposures Allergens Substances that cause allergic reactions C i t y o f P i ge o n Fo rge F i re D e p a r t m e nt D i v i s i o n o f Tr a i n i n g a n d C o n ti n u i n g E d u c a ti o n Properties and Hazards Works Cited N.F.P.A. 472 Standard for Competence of responders to Hazardous

Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents 2008 Edition N.F.P.A 1001 Standard for Professional Firefighter Qualifications 2008 Edition N.F.P.A. 1561 Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System 2008 Edition O.S.H.A 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response U.S. DOT Emergency Response Guidebook 2008 Edition

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