COST MANAGEMENT BASICS COST ANALYSIS Agenda Cost Estimating Types of Cost Normalization and Inflation Risk Assessment
Cost Estimating Methods Labor Costing Optimization Statistical Analysis Tools 2 Cost Estimating 3 Cost and Cost Estimating Definition Cost: The monetary representation of resources used or sacrificed, and liabilities incurred to achieve an objective Example:
The resources expended in acquiring or producing a good The resources expended in performing an activity or service Cost Estimating: The process of collecting and analyzing data and applying quantitative models, techniques, tools, and databases to estimate the future cost of an item, product, program, or task Cost estimating is thought by some to be difficult, but the skills and knowledge are logical and straightforward. 4 Purpose of Cost Estimating Enable managers to:
Make resource-informed decisions Develop and defend budgets Identify specific cost drivers Improve cost controls Translate system/functional needs associated with programs, projects, proposals, or processes into costs Determine and communicate a realistic view of the probable costs, which will be used to inform the decision-making process. 5 Characteristics of a Good Cost Estimate
Well documented Comprehensive Ensures a level of detail where cost elements are neither omitted nor double counted Accurate
Includes source data and its significance Clear and detailed calculations and results Contains explanations for choosing a particular method or reference Avoids bias and overly conservative or optimistic estimates Bases its assessments on most likely scenarios and assumptions Credible Discusses any limitations of the analysis deriving from the uncertainty/bias of the data or assumptions 6 Types of Cost
Sunk Costs Opportunity Costs Marginal Costs Average Costs 7 Sunk Costs Costs that have already been incurred and cannot be changed no matter what action is taken in the future are called Sunk Costs Example: Example: Paul Paulis
isassembling assembling his hisnew new home hometheatre theatresystem. system. He Hehas has spent spent 55hours hoursthus thusfar farand andestimates estimateshe hewill willcomplete completethe
theassembly assembly in in22more morehours. hours. Joan Joaninforms informshim himhe heis isdoing doingititthe thehard hardway wayand and describes describes aasimpler simplerapproach
approachwhich whichwill willtake take one onehour hourto toundo undohis his work workand andre-assemble re-assemblethe thesystem. system. 7 Opportunity Costs
The size of a foregone opportunity of using a resource is the Opportunity Cost Example: Example: The The opportunity opportunity cost cost of of accepting accepting aa job job is is forgoing forgoing the the opportunity opportunity to to do do something something else else with
with our our time time IfIf our our best best alternative alternative to to working working is is playing playing golf golf the the opportunity opportunity cost cost of of working working is
is the the forgone forgone opportunity opportunity of of playing playing golf golf IfIf the the opportunity opportunity to to play play golf golf has has aa value value greater greater than than the
the benefits benefits of of working working we we will will choose choose to to play play golf golf 8 Marginal Costs Marginal Costs are the costs to produce one more additional unit or output The slope of the Total Cost Curve at any given level of production is the marginal cost for one more unit Marginal costs are highest at very low
output rates and at output rates near capacity 10 Marginal Costs Total cost C High marginal costs Total () A B Lowest marginal costs High marginal costs
Output 10 Average Costs Average Cost is calculated by dividing the total cost by the total units produced Average Cost is very high at low levels of output Cost Drivers Organizations perform work activities to deliver products/services to a stakeholder Definition: Factors, activities, or events that cause costs to be incurred Usually can be quantified/measured - e.g., number of hours spent on a task, supported population Analyst should identify and focus on the primary cost drivers that affect total cost
Helps to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the cost estimate Makes it easier to control costs within the organization Examples: The labor cost associated with assembling a HMMWV at a the factory would be driven by the quantity of vehicles produced Energy consumption at the PX is driven by the square footage of the building and the operating hours The cost of printing budget documents for the Office of Management and Budget is driven by the number of pages in each set and the number of sets needed 13 Types of Analyses Used in Army Decision-Making 14
Comparative Analyses Supporting Resource Informed Decision EA Economic Analysis EA is an OSD MAIS required analysis in support of investment decision at early IT/ERP program concept phase MS-A with an update at MS-B decision. EA is also required by the Army CoE in support of Military construction decision. (MAIS) Major Automated Information System programs AoA Analysis of Alternatives
AoA is an OSD MDAP required analysis in support of acquisition requirement decision at early program concept phase MS-A with an update at MS-B decision. AoA is a formal and elaborate study that in addition to the program life cycle, often includes an operational model done by TRADOC for the Army ASARC and OSD DAB decisions. (MDAP) Major Defense Acquisition Programs BCA Business Case Analysis CBA Cost Benefit Analysis
BCA is an OSD MDAP required analysis at post production phase in support of Performance Based Logistics (PBL) Contractor Logistic Support (CLS) vs. organic O&S decision. Risk analysis is an essential component of BCA. BCA term is often synonymous with CBA for non-PBL analysis. CBA is an Army required analysis for all new and existing initiatives at resource decision forums with cost of $10M or more. CBA for Army HQ decision is developed by the initiative advocate and reviewed by the CBA-RB . AMC and TRADOC also have similar process for their internal resource decisions. 15 Break-Even Point Cost Reduction = Upfront Investment Break-Even Point:
Used when a given alternative has a significant investment cost but is expected to experience cost reduction in future years This is also where (in current dollars): savings = investment 16 Example - Break-Even Point Summary of Break-Even Point: - Its the year where the savings become positive. - Using inflation indices, constant dollars are converted into current dollars. - Savings are the difference between cumulative costs. 17 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Th
e an nu aliz ed eff ecti ve co mp ou nd ed ret urn18 Net Present Value Net Present Value (NPV): The difference between the present value of cash inflows
and the present value of cash outflows Used to analyze the profitability of an investment This works only if values, costs (outflows), and benefits (inflows) are quantified into monetary terms 19 Net Present Value Formula Net Present Value (NPV): The amount of dollars that would have to be invested during the base year at the assumed discount (interest) rate to cover the costs, match the revenues, or match the savings at a specific point in the future NPV = PV (benefits) PV (costs) 20
Cost Estimating in EA Must consider the Economic Life Period of time over which the benefits to be gained from a project may reasonably be expected to accrue. Benefits are limited by the equipment or facilitys physical and technological life Measured against a stipulated level of threat, or represent a period during which a given mission or function is required or can be supported 21 Total Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Th e su m
of all cos ts req uir ed to res ear ch, dev22 Investment Multiples/Ratios Rat ios co mp
are the pro fits or sav ing s of an inv 23 Business Cases Analysis (BCA): Key Questions Is the proposed solution: 1. Financially Viable (Make Economic Sense) 2. Optimal (Best Value or Increased Effectiveness) 3. Feasible (Assessing Constraints) 4. Implementable (Risks & 2nd/3rd Order Effects)
24 Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Within the Department of the Army, one major process which incorporates cost analysis is Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) 25 What is a CBA? Cost-Benefit Analysis: Is a structured methodology used to identify alternative solutions to a problem, determine the costs and benefits of each alternative, define the appropriate decision criteria, and select the best alternative Produces a strong value proposition a clear statement that the benefits outweigh the costs and risks.
In Basic Terms: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define a problem or opportunity Identify alternatives Determine their costs and benefits Evaluate and select the best alternative 26 Why Do We Need CBAs? Purpose: Supplement (but not replace) professional experience, subject matter expertise, and military judgment with rigorous analytical techniques Make best possible use of constrained resources When making resource decisions:
Ensure that all decisions are resource-informed Treat cost as a consideration from the outset, not as an afterthought Understand how much benefit will be derived Identify billpayers Consider second- and third-order effects 27 CBA and the Cost Culture CBA is part of a high-priority initiative to inculcate a cost culture throughout the Army. In any organization, culture is the beliefs and principles that guide the behavior of the people in that organization. Example: The Armys military culture is based on mission accomplishment, selfless service, valor, and dedication. These concepts establish the foundation for how Soldiers and Civilians go about their duties. In a cost culture: Cost is an integral part of every decision
Soldiers and Civilians strive to find better and more cost effective ways to operate the Army enterprise Leaders at all levels engage in cost control and management activities, which are supported by talented cost staffs 28 Cost Benefit Analysis CBA Using analysis to make the case for a project or proposal: Weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits over the near, far, and lifecycle timeframes from an Army enterprise perspective 1. Define the Problem/Opportunity COSTS
Quantifiable costs Direct Indirect Initial/Start up Sustainment Procurement Non-Quantifiable costs Life/Safety/Health Perception/Image Opportunity Risk/Uncertainty Political 2. Define the Scope; Formulate Facts and Assumptions BENEFITS
The total of quantifiable and nonquantifiable benefits Quantifiable benefits Cost Savings Cost Avoidances Non-Quantifiable benefits Greater capability Faster availability Better quality Improved morale
Other? 3. Define Alternatives 4. Develop Cost Estimate for each Alternative 5. Identify Quantifiable and Non- Quantifiable Benefits 6. Define Alternative Selection Criteria 7. Compare Alternatives 8. Report Results and Recommendations BENEFITS MUST BALANCE OR OUTWEIGH COSTS 29 CBA is NOT a Linear Process Objective Recommendation
Assumptions Sensitivity Analysis Alternatives Compare Alternatives Selection Criteria Benefits Estimate Cost Estimates At any step in the process, the teams findings and analysis might
make it necessary to revisit previous steps Significant findings might require asking the decision maker for revised guidance 30 Normalization and Inflation 31 Normalization and Inflation Adjusting for inflation is a specific form of normalization, an adjustment intended to make a given data set consistent and comparable with other data sets A frequent use of simple normalization is to adjust based on quantities. For example: In a manufacturing process, COA 1 produces 17,000 widgets per year at a total cost of $33,765 and COA 2 produces 14,500 widgets at a total cost of $28,725. Its difficult to evaluate these COAs unless we normalize by computing a unit cost, which
shows us that COA 2, with a unit cost of $1.95 per widget, is preferable to COA 1, which has a unit cost of $1.99. 32 What is Inflation? Definition A rise in the general level of prices Measure of change in the dollars purchasing power In other words: A given dollar amount will have less buying power next year than it does this year To maintain consistent buying power, we must adjust this years dollars with the inflation factor from year to year Common methods for normalization:
Discounting Constant (Base) Year Of all the topics discussed in cost analysis, none will be encountered more frequently than inflation 33 Inflation Calculation and Examples Basic calculations: (Constant Dollars) * (Inflation Factor) = Current (Dollars) Inflation is compounded from year to year (i.e., multiplied, not added). Example: A loaf of bread in 1950 cost $0.25. Today, in 2012, it costs $3.00. 34
ExampleCurrent Dollar Calculation Data: Weve calculated the annual cost for a given COA in FY12 constant dollars: Civilian personnel: $145,000 Contract support: $100,000 (paid by OMA appropriation) Applicable inflation factors: Civilian personnel: 2% per year OMA appropriation: 3% per year Calculation for the first three years of the life-cycle: Cost Element Const. Dollar Cost
cost 245,000 245,000 250,900 256,948 35 Risk Assessment 36 Risk Assessment and Mitigation The goal of risk assessment is to answer questions like:
What risks may occur? What is the likelihood that risks will occur? Are the source of these risks internal or external? What causes these risks? What are the consequences if the risks go unresolved? What assets, operations, activities, functions, etc. will be affected as a result? How much risk is tolerable?
What should be done to anticipate and limit risks? Always measure the risk by the potential adverse impacts on alternatives. 37 Types of Risks Business/Programmatic Risk: Affects the budget and viability of a program Operational Risk: Affects the ability to perform a mission Process Risk: Associated with failing to meet standards and performance benchmarks in a newly established process Technical Risk: Associated with failing to develop or implement technology Schedule Risk: Associated with allocating time to perform and manage tasks Organizational Risk:
Associated with management changes 38 Ways to Measure/Address Risk Methods of measuring and/or addressing risk include, but are not limited to: Effective Mean Cost of Risk Mitigation 39 Effective Mean (Expected Value) The effective mean, or expected value, of a measurable quantity is the sum of all possible outcomes multiplied by their corresponding probabilities Example: if the cost of a new ground combat vehicle is judged to be $1.4M with 50% probability, $2M with 25% probability, and $1.2M
with 25% probability, then the effective mean (expected cost) is $1.4M x 0.5 + $2M x 0.25 + $1.2M x 0.25 = $1.5M. Example: if inter-theater transit time for a sustainment brigade is projected to be 5 days with 90% probability and 4 days with 10% probability, then the expected transit time is 5 x 0.9 + 4 x 0.1 = 4.9 days. 40 Cost of Risk Mitigation If a cost can be associated with reducing risk, then risk can be measured by that monetary value. Example: If for $22K extra, the risk of a schedule over-run can be reduced from 15% to 3%, then $22K can be a
measure for the difference in risk. 41 Cost Estimating Principles and Rules Use authoritative data sources Ensure that cost estimates support apples-to-apples comparison among COAs Ensure the cost estimate is well-documented, comprehensive, accurate, and credible Constant vs. current dollars Use constant (un-inflated) dollars for even comparison for COAs in CBAs Convert estimate to current (inflated) dollars to determine POM/budget resourcing requirements 42
Cost Estimating Methods 43 Available Cost Estimating Methods Available methods: Analogy Parametric Engineering Actual Cost Expert Opinion Learning Curves Most CBAs utilize all cost estimating methods 44
Cost Estimating Methods The use of each method is based on the information available to support it. GROSS ESTIMATES Parametric DETAILED ESTIMATES Actual Costs Engineering Analogy Figure 1: A summary of the usual application of each technique. 45 Analogy Method Estimates the cost, based on historical data, of an analogous system or subsystem
Utilizes a current fielded system that is similarly designed to the proposed system Adjusts historical cost of the current system to account for differences Adjustments should be made through parameters/scaling factors based on quantitative data These adjustments should show validity of comparison When is it used? When an analogous case (that can be applied to a subsystem or component level) exists 46 Analogy Method Example Attribute Old System New System
Engine: F-100 F-200 Thrust: 12,000 lbs 16,000 lbs Cost: $5.2M ? Q: What is the unit cost of the F-200? A: $5.2M * (16,000/12,000) = $6.9M Warning 1: An adjusted analogy is like a regression, but the slope is just a guess. Warning 2: An adjusted analogy is, by definition, estimating outside the range of the data.
47 Parametric Method Uses regression or other statistical methods to develop a cost estimating relationship based on observed patterns of how specific parameters influence total cost Utilizes: High-level Work Breakdown Structure (top down approach) A database from elements of one or more systems When is it used? Historical data is available but not detailed In earlier stages of the system or project life cycle 48 Parametric Method Example High Mobility Wheeled Vehicles Database Cost of
Gross Curb Cubic Ft Vehicle First Unit Weight Weight Shipping M274 $ 9,585 1,770 970 81.6 M561 50,002 8,363 5,363 732.3 M656 93,262
24,785 14,785 1,227 M520 147,889 36,590 10,500 2,368 Net Horsepower 12.5 93 183 176 Is Cubic Ft Shipping a good predictor of cost? 49
Parametric Method Example (Contd) Cost of First Unit vs. Shipping Capacity Cost of First Unit ($K) 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 500 1000 1500 Cubic Feet of Shipping
2000 2500 Cost of First Unit = 60.992 * (Cubic Shipping Feet) + 7,957.2 We can estimate the cost of any vehicle given the shipping capacity using the above equation. 50 Engineering Method Breaks down the system of interest into lower level components, each of which is estimated separately Work Breakdown Structure Uses algebraic equations (bottom up approach) Most detailed of all techniques Requires extensive knowledge of a systems
characteristics and the respective detailed data Is expensive and time consuming When is it used? All potential costs can be assumed or estimated Types of Army data sources (AMCOS Lite, MILCON, SRM, historical ,execution, travel, etc.) 51 Developing the WBS What the WBS does: Ensures that all component elements are identified so that all costs are counted only once Provides a systematic, standardized way to collect data Decompose to as many levels as needed Example: The airplane cockpit can be decomposed into its subelements: Instrument panel
Primary flight instruments Directional gyro Turn and bank indicator Altimeter Airspeed indicator Avionics controls Communications Navigation Radar Flight control systems Rudder pedals Steering yoke
Trim tab controls Seats Seat and shoulder belts Cushions Head rest and so on A well-decomposed process flowchart that defines/describes the COA is a useful tool in developing the WBS 52 WBS Another Example 53 Actual Cost Method If historical costs from experience or trends from
prototypes, engineering development models, and early production items are available, they can be used to cost current goods or services Extracts costs that were actually incurred on same system during an earlier period Obtaining access to these actual costs may be difficult When is it used? The actual data from the same system is present 54 Actual Cost Method Example a. The development process is nearing completion b. The materials have all been procured at a cost of $20M c. The labor cost to date is $30M d. According to earned value cost performance reports (CPRs), the estimated cost at completion
for the remainder of the labor is another $20M Cost = $20M + $30M + $20M = $70M 55 Expert Opinion Method Obtains opinions from experienced individuals or a group Documents the source of opinions Lists attributes of the sources When is it used? When availability of data is limited. Delphi Technique 1. Query expert opinion from group 2. Seek expert opinion from each group, and then summarize results to
send in reports 3. 4. Gather another opinion and summarize those results Continue process until experts reach a consensus 56 Expert Opinion Method Example Scenario: Three software engineers are recognized experts in ERP software development 1. You hold interviews to explain the Stakeholders needs, sizing level, and development process for your new system 2. Each member of the group submits his/her opinion of the final cost 3. If all expert opinions converge to, or hover around the same figure, that may be taken as a good cost estimate
57 Forecasting: What is Forecasting? Process of predicting a future event Underlying basis of all business decisions ??
Production Inventory Personnel Facilities 62 Personnel Costing 59 Personnel Costing Labor is expensive and typically accounts for the majority of costs incurred Example: when you get your car repaired, labor typically accounts for 70-85% of the bill 60
AMCOS AMCOS is the principal tool cost analysts use for labor costing and it can be found at: https://www.osmisweb.army.mil/amcos/app/home.a spx Costs are shown for military, government civilian, and private sector civilian workers Costs are most detailed for military, and the least detailed for private sector civilians 61 AMCOS AMCOS AMCOS ApplicationsAMCOS lite GFEBS Payroll vs. Labor
64 Optimization 65 What is optimization? Optimization is about achieving the maximum or minimum possible result Example: If you have 20ft of fence to make a rectangular garden, what is the maximum sized garden you can make? The answer is a square with each length measuring 5ft. 66 Example: Finding Optimal Solutions
U.S. Army Central Command has secured $198M for the procurement of two different models of the HIMARS 2 multiple rocket launcherclass X and class Yfor deployment to Afghanistan. The class Y HIMARS 2 costs $9M each and weighs 27,000 pounds. The class X HIMARS 2 costs $11M and weighs 12,000 pounds. After procurement, all the HIMARS 2 will be transported to Afghanistan by a fleet of C-130 Hercules aircraft, each with a total maximum payload of 405,000 pounds. 67 Example: Finding Optimal Solutions 1. How do you maximize the total number of HIMARS procured? 2. If you buy only Class X, you can afford 18. 3. If you buy only Class Y, you can carry 15.
4. So is buy 18 Class X HIMARS the optimal solution? 68 Example: Finding Optimal Solutions COA 2 COA 3 COA 4 COA 1 (Status Quo) 69 Example: Finding Optimal Solutions You can procure 9 Class X and 11 Class Y HIMARS, for a total of 20.
Moral of the exercise: analysis is sometimes necessary to determine the optimal solution. 70 Statistical Analysis 71 Statistical Analysis Area under curve between a and b is 99.74% a m
Mean Time Beta distribution b a 3 m Mean Time 3 b
Normal distribution 78 Statistic Analysis Applications Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data One application of statistics is the U.S. Census. It seeks to understand some details (such as income, gender, marital status) of people living in the country 73 Statistical Analysis Standard Terms Probability: likelihood of an event occurring (expressed as a value between 0 and 1, e.g. 0.63)
Average/mean: the sum of a list of numbers divided by the size (amount of numbers) of the list Mode: the most frequent appearing or most likely to be drawn quantity Variance: (1/N)*(xi-average)2 Standard deviation: square root of variance 80 Statistical Analysis Example A data set consists of the values 6.5, 6.5, 0.2, 4.0 The mean is (6.5+6.5+0.2+4.0)/4=4.3 The mode is 6.5 The variance is (1/4)*((4.3-6.5)2+ (4.3-6.5)2+ (4.3-0.2)2+ (4.3-4.0)2)=6.6 The standard deviation is sqrt (6.6)=2.6 81
Understanding likelihood of occurrence How likely an event is to occur is expressed in probability Example: if you roll a fair die, you have a 1/6 chance of getting a particular number since the die is 6-sided In the case of dice, there are 6 possible outcomes (which is finite). Sometimes there may be infinite outcomes What is the likelihood of leaving work at exactly 5pm? (not being even one billionth of a second over or under) For cases like this in which there are infinite outcomes (i.e. you may leave one millisecond over, two milliseconds over, 5 microseconds under, etc.) you need to use probability densities 82 Quantifying Cost Risk Statistics can be used to quantify risk associated with costs
We may ask, what are the odds of the costs being significantly under or above the target? 77 Cost Risk and Schedule Example Example: Lets say the cost to construct a building is expected to be approximately $3,000,000 if completed on time and every month delay in completion adds $23,000 to the cost, and every month the building is completed in advance saves $23,000. There is a 20% chance the building is completed on time, a 20% chance of being one month late, a 20% chance being two months late, a 20% chance being one month early, and a 20% chance being two months early. What is the likelihood of paying no more than $2,977,000 for the building? 78
Solution to Example $2,977,000 is the amount paid if the building is one month early. Thus, if we seek to pay no more than this, we must finish the building one month ahead of schedule (at the latest). In other words, we can finish one or two months early. There is a 20% chance of being one month ahead of schedule, and another 20% chance of being two months ahead of schedule, so the answer is 20%+20%=40% 79 The normal/Gaussian/bell-curve distribution Consider the normal curve below: The x-axis shows project duration in weeks. The peak of the curve occurs at week 69. Week 69 is also the average project duration (which is intuitive due to the symmetry of the curve).
The purple shaded area represents the probability of having project duration of at least 72 weeks. The blue shaded area represent the probability of having a project duration less than 72 weeks. Probability distributions, especially probability densities, are often used to quantify risk in cost estimating and in other fields A probability density function shows the likelihood of an event occurring. The height of the curve corresponds to the likelihood of an event occurring. Perhaps the most commonly used probability distribution is the normal
distribution. Given two points on the x-axis, the area under the curve bounded by these points is equal to the probability that a value within those bounds will occur The average and mode are given by the x-coordinate corresponding to the curves peak. Normal distribution: Mean = 69 weeks; = 3.45 weeks Probability of meeting the schedule is 0.8078 Probability of
exceeding 72 weeks is 0.1922 69 72 Project duration (weeks) 86 Variances Statistically, how far a set of numbers is spread out or distributed In the context of budgeting or cost estimation, a variance is the difference between an actual and an expected (budgeted) amount. 87 Variances Further analysis decomposes (breaks down) the
variance analysis into progressively smaller components answers: How much were we off? Examination of variance into progressively moredetailed levels of analysis answers: Where and why were we off? 90 Variances Basic Concepts Static-Budget Variance (Level 0): the difference between the actual result and the corresponding static budget amount Favorable Variance (F): has the effect of increasing operating income relative to the budget amount Unfavorable Variance (U): has the effect of decreasing operating income relative to the budget amount 88
Variance Analysis VAR (X) = E [(X - )2] Continuous random variable Discrete random variable Normal distribution 89 Tools 85 Available Tools and Models for Cost Data Some of the websites listed here require user accounts. In most cases, anyone with a dot mil address can obtain an account. You are encouraged to scan these sites and request an account to any site that you
think will be useful to you. This will save time when you need to use any sites to support a CBA or other projects. Tool/Model URL Purpose FORCES Cost Models https://www.osmisweb.army.mil/forces/login.aspx Suite of models that provides quick and reasonable unit cost estimates to a wide variety of users Army Military-Civilian Cost System (AMCOS)
https://www.osmisweb.army.mil/amcos/app/ home.aspx Personnel costs for military, civilian, and/or contractor http://asafm.army.mil/Documents/ OfficeDocuments/CostEconomics/rates/ indices.xls Inflation indices Capabilities Knowledge Base http://asafm.army.mil/Documents/ officedocuments/costeconomics/guidances/ckbui.pdf http://asafm.army.mil/offices/CE/Ckb.aspx? OfficeCode=1400
Research, development, and acquisition costing for major weapon/material systems Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS) https://www.osmisweb.army.mil/osmisrdb/ login.aspx Operating and support information for major weapon/material systems ASA(FM&C) Website Access links through the Resources tab in the CBA Portal at:
https://cpp.army.mil Conclusion 87 Overhead Variances Overhead is the most difficult cost to manage, and is the least understood Overhead variances involve taking differences between equations as the analysis moves back and forth between actual results and budgeted amounts 88
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