THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION Reformation Europe (Late 16cc) Counter
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION Reformation Europe (Late 16cc) Counter Reformation Approach #1 The Inquisition
Spanish and Roman Believed they were saving peoples souls Burned at the stake and other torture techniques Persecution of Jewish and Muslim converts Those who confessed or were found guilty were pronounced together in a public ceremony at the end of all the processes. Penances might consist of a pilgrimage, a public scourging, a fine, or the wearing of a cross.
Approach #2 Missionaries Jesuits Swear oaths of loyalty to the Pope Loyola and The Spiritual Exercises Missions in the New World Approach #3 Council of Trent Would not reconcile with
Protestants Curbed abuses with indulgences Set up new schools for clergy Confirmed the authority of the Pope Defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints
Approach #4 Index of Prohibited Books http:// www.youtube.com/ watch?v=j_S81oSR2AA The Baroque See Other power point
Tenets of the Roman Catholic Church Hierarchy The RCC
Transubstantiation Indulgences Worship of Saints Sources of authority: Bible and High Church Officials Purgatory Clerical celibacy Monasticism
The RCC 7 Sacraments Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Communion, Confession, Marriage, Holy Orders, and the Anointing of the Sick
Problems within the Church in the 16th Century Role Plays Papal Behavior http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfpRk9FOFeg Pope Alexander VI What does this image reveal about the status of the RCC on the eve of the Reformation?
The Babylonian Captivity The Great Schism Jan Hus John Wyclif Summary of what they believed or were about Explain how they or it would have weakened
the RCC before Martin Luther Tetzel Staunch Catholic Sold Indulgences for the St. Peters Cathedral A Coin in the Coffer Rings, a soul from Purgatory springs!
Grand Inquisitor Condemned for embezzlement Later found not guilty Cards for Calvin and Zwingli Where are they from and where did they establish religious communities
Beliefs about salvation Beliefs about the sacrament Beliefs about the ideal society Beliefs about the separation of church and state Other.
Cards for Calvin and Zwingli Years living Ideas about salvation 3 additional ideas about religion (beliefs)
Where they established their model religious communities Knox Scottish Reformer Presbyterian Church Called for the death of Mary, Queen of Scotland Influenced by John Calvin "None have I corrupted,
none have I defrauded; merchandise have I not made. Anabaptists No infant baptism Women could hold church offices Mistreated Model or utopian
communities Tolerant of other religions http:// www.henryviiiandthetudor s.co.uk/quiz.htm What do the clothes suggest about this persons social status?
What does the artist want you to think of this person? What characteristics or personality traits might this person possess? The Tudors Family Tree How long did the family reign?
How many female rulers were there in the Tudor dynasty? How many wives did Henry VIII have? Identify two additional things that the timeline teaches you. New Inventions in Tudor times
Tennis Sugar Carpet First shopping mall First flushing toilet Upholstered furniture
Life in Tudor England The average person drank 8 pints of weak beer per day (even children). 9 out of 10 people died before age 40. Bathing was considered unhealthy. People wanted their teeth to rot
to prove that they could afford sugar. Girls could marry at age 12 and boys 14; they had to live with their parents until age 16 though. Henry VIII "His Majesty is the handsomest potentate I ever set eyes on; above the usual height, with an extremely fine calf to his leg, his
complexion fair and bright, with auburn hair, combed straight and short in the French fashion, and a round face so very beautiful that it would become a pretty woman, his throat was rather long and thick" The wives http:// www.henryviiiandthetudors.co.uk/wives.htm (info and children)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fadCAHjN-s Charles V 1500-1558 He ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia Raised in the Netherlands Charles was born and raised in
the Netherlands, but spent most of his time as a monarch in Spain, leaving his German provinces to be governed by Hapsburg cousins "Plus Ultra", "Even Further" Staunch Catholic 40 Year Reign Charles V Age of Exploration and
colonies Reformation Ottoman Turks encroaching on Southeastern Europe Most significant enemies, from his point of view, were Catholic France and the Moslem Turks.
Charles V Why would he allow limited Protestant practice in the Holy Roman Empire? Why would the spread of Protestantism be a threat to him politically? Imperial army sacked Rome in 1527 and drove the Pope into exile because
he allied himself with Charles' enemy Francis I. Charles V Reinstated power of the nobles in Spain Wealthy Spain during his reignbut the beginning of the end (gold and silver from
the New World to fight his wars) Charles V Retired to a monastery in 1556 Died in 1558 German Peasants War DBQ
On the back of the Venn Causes and Reactions (cite the documents) Each team member should site bias that he or she sees in a document Martin Luther The man, the myth, the legend! http://video.pbs.org/video/1379563195/ 5 things learned every 10 minutes
CAUSES Worldliness luxurious and materialistic lifestyles of popes and high clergy Nepotism appointing relatives to Church positions to the Church regardless of ability Simony buying and selling of Church positions Indulgences accepting $ for Church pardons
CAUSES Clerical pluralism holding more than one office Clerical ignorance many priests were illiterate Clerical immorality gambling, drinking,
concubines of women POPE ALEXANDER VI (1492-1503) ECLINE IN PAPAL PRESTIG Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377) Popes lived in Avignon under French Kings Great Schism (1378-1417) struggle for Church Supremacy rival popes
Avignon and Rome claim to be the true Pope (3 Popes??? Authority???) Conciliar Movement periodic councils, assemblies to reform the Church CONCIL OF CONSTANCE 1414- 1418 Three objectives END SCHISM
WIPE OF HERESY ELECT A NEW POPE MARTIN V (1417-1431) Satire on Popery 1555 POWER OF THE RCC
Middle Ages (500-1500) civilizing agent Missionaries converted the pagan population Hospitals care for the sick Cathedrals and Monasteries centers for learning Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne 800 C.E. foundations of the HRE Papal States Pepin the Short (714?-68) granted land to the Pope
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE HRE The HRE was neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire Voltaire Originally Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans Loose confederation of 300+ States Holy Roman Emperor elected
by 7 Elector States Hapsburg Family Austria HALLENGES TO POWER Investiture Controversy power struggle kings and popes during the Middle Ages 1075 Pope Gregory VII only the Pope could name Bishops German King Henry IV challenged the
decree claiming Kings had the right to name Bishops King Henry IV excommunicated eventually back down UTHERS PREDECCSOR John Wycliffe (1328?1384) English Priest Condemned the wealth and worldliness of the RCC
Bible highest religious authority Translated the Bible into English Denounced by the Pope followers Lollards harshly persecuted MARTIN LUTHER Martin Luther
Great Man? OR Man of His Times? WHY WAS LUTHER SUCCESSFUL? Social Political
Religious Intellectual Technology Economic REFORMATION THEOLOGY Reformo latin to form again, mold anew, or revive Scripture alone Bible sole authority, salvation cannot be bought and sold
Faith alone Salvation through Gods grace not good works Christ alone No other mediator b/w God and humanity, rejects the hierarchy of the RCC Glory of God alone vocation Bible translated into Vernacular (Luthers German Bible) CONSEQUENCES
End of a united Christendom Brutal, bloody wars of religion, religious persecution Religious, Social, Political conflicts intermingled Emphasis on education establishment of modern languages (German, English) not Latin Confiscation of Church lands increased power for rulers
New emphasis place on family and marriage CONSEQUENCES Counter Reformation RCC reaffirmation of traditional Catholic theology Growth of Capitalism material success a sign of Grace, moral discipline, and individualism Italy, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Poland, S. Germany (Catholic)
N. Germany, Baltic region (Lutheran) Scotland, Switzerland, Holland (Calvinist) England (Anglican) CONSEQUENCES DID LUTHER SAVE OR DESTROY THE RCC?
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