2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All

 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All

2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Session 3 Lesson Five A Mass Casualty Triage Applied Learning Exercise 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Scenario Upscale shopping center Suspicious car

Explosion and gunfire erupt You and local paramedic are nearby and uninjured What issues need to be addressed? 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Situational Awareness Needs > resources = ____? What can I do? Who is in charge? Immediate considerations and actions?

Explosions? Gunman? Contamination? What do I have? What is needed and who has it? Detection Incident Management Safety and Security Assessing Hazards Support Can I now perform triage and treatment? 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Scenario Update 911 Operator informs you:

Do NOT hang up phone Two ambulances (MICU) are nearby but in traffic Police car has first aid and safety equipment in trunk What is the next step? 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Global Sorting

Outcomes Walk 2 patients Wave 3 patients Still 7 patients Who needs to know this information? 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 SALT Triage Step 2: Individual Assessment

LSI* Control major hemorrhage Open airway (if child, consider 2 rescue breaths) Chest decompression Autoinjector antidotes Yes Breathing? Obeys commands or makes purposeful movement? Has peripheral pulse? Not in respiratory distress? Major hemorrhage in control? All Yes No

Dead Yes Minimal No No Likely to survive given current resources? Minor injuries only? Delayed Yes Immediate

No Expectant *LSI = lifesaving interventions 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 24-year-old woman Lying face down in a pool of blood RR 0 Extensive head and face trauma Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Unchanged 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 40-year-old man Contusions on head and face Gasping, rapid, and shallow breathing Left chest distended and immobile Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest

Autoinject antidote Response: Left chest moving, shallow rapid breathing 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 19-year-old man Appears in severe pain, cannot hear you Rapid symmetric breathing Near amputation above R knee, bleeding Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage

Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Bleeding controlled, RR 20 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 48-year-old woman Unresponsive Normal breathing and radial pulse present Obvious injury to her head

Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 55-year-old man Unresponsive with contusions on head/face Snoring sounds with breathing

Deformity of left arm noted Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Normal breathing, remains unresponsive 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 10-year-old girl

Head trauma with protruding brain matter Slow, deep respirations Mother holding her on lap in damaged car Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway and give two rescue breaths Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Unchanged 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2

38-year-old man Unresponsive with GSW to head and neck Gurgling respiratory sounds Wearing a ballistic vest Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Not breathing 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Still ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead

BDLS v.3.2 28-year-old man Grimacing in pain saying I cant breathe Holding R anterior chest near apparent GSW Right chest distended and immobile Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Improved breathing but still labored, symmetric chest movement 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Wave ID-ME Immediate

Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 17-year-old woman Sitting on curb, uninjured, hoarse voice Face is swollen, loud expiratory wheezing Points to a dead wasp on the ground nearby Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Some improvement but still labored, EpiPen available in first aid kit 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Wave

ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 63-year-old woman Fell while running after explosion Gross deformity of left ankle Contusions and bruising on both arms Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Unchanged 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wave ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 33-year-old woman Crying inconsolably, holding 10-year-old child in car Superficial abrasions to arm and scalp Demands you take her daughter to hospital Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote

Response: Unchanged 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Walk ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 36-year-old man Laceration to right hand, bone and tendon visible Bleeding controlled, shirt used as bandage Wants to stay and help you Lifesaving intervention Control major hemorrhage

Open airway Decompress chest Autoinject antidote Response: Unchanged 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Walk ID-ME Immediate Delayed Minimal Expectant Dead BDLS v.3.2 SITREP: Triage Status Report Immediate

5 Delayed 3 Minimal 1 Expectant 1 Dead 2 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2

SITREP: Triage Status Report Immediate 5 40-year-old, M, right chest trauma 48-year-old, F, head injury 55-year-old, M, head injury 17-year-old, severe allergic reaction 28-year-old, M, GSW right chest 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 SITREP: Triage Status Report Delayed 3

19-year-old, M, leg amputation 63-year-old, F, left ankle injury 36-year-old, M, laceration right hand 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 SITREP: Triage Status Report Minimal 1 33-year-old, F, superficial abrasions 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2

SITREP: Triage Status Report Expectant 1 10-year-old, F, severe head injury 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 SITREP: Triage Status Report Dead 2 24-year-old, F, severe head injury, RR-0 38-year-old, M, GSW head and neck, RR-0

2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Scenario Update EMS and law enforcement on scene: Ask if you are injured Briefly discuss the SITREP findings with you Request that you have a seat in a nearby police car

What are your thoughts now? 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 SALT Triage After-Action Review The purpose of SALT triage is to identify those most likely to survive Global sorting identifies where lifesaving interventions will be most needed Lifesaving interventions (LSI) should always be done

before triage category assignment Available resources will influence triage category assignment 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2 Questions? 2015 National Disaster Life Support Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. BDLS v.3.2

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