Medford Township Schools Dyslexia Training Presented by Gale Ferraro, Ed.D. This training will focus on: An overview of the adopted regulations A definition of reading disabilities, specifically highlighting dyslexia An overview of research and data on reading disabilities, with focus on dyslexia
The common characteristics of dyslexia A review of how reading disabilities are diagnosed A description of assessments and screenings utilized to diagnose reading disorders Specific strategies, interventions, and treatments on dealing with reading difficulties Types of modifications and accommodations that a teacher can utilize to support students with reading disabilities 4 New Regulations 1.
On August 9, 2013, Governor Chris Christie signed into law Bill A3608. This bill directs the State Board of Education to create regulations that incorporate the International Dyslexia Associations (IDA) definition of dyslexia into Chapter 14 of Title 6A of the N.J.A.C., which outlines the requirements for the provisions of special education programs and services. Currently, state regulations list dyslexia as one of the specific learning disabilities that impair a persons ability to understand or use language; however, the regulations do not specifically define dyslexia. Dyslexia means a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by
difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. U nder the law, the State B oard of Education will incorporate the IDAs definition (revised 02-03-2016). 2. Governor Christie also signed into law A3606/3607 which requires the
Department of Education to provide professional development opportunities related to reading disabilities. It also mandates a 2 hour training be conducted annually for certain school district personnel. K-3 General Education Teachers Special Education Teachers Basic Skills/Academic Mastery Teachers English as a Second Language Teachers Reading Specialists Learning Disabilities Teacher Consultants Speech Language Specialists Additional staff have been included All staff will have this training available to them 3. On January 21, 2014, Governor Christie signed
into law S-2442, which requires school districts to screen children for dyslexia and other reading disabilities beginning with the 2014-2015 school year. Specifically, school districts will screen children who have exhibited a potential indication of dyslexia, or other reading disabilities, by the completion of the 1st semester of 2nd grade. 4. In addition, State Resolution 91, urges the State Board of Education to develop an endorsement
to the instructional certificate for teachers of students with dyslexia so that specific training requirements are met and eligibility standards are established. DEFINING DYSLEXIA The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of
effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. The World Foundation of Neurology defines dyslexia as: A disorder manifested by difficulty in learning to read despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and socio-cultural opportunity. In summary, dyslexia is one of several distinct learning disabilities. It is a specific language
based disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. These difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities, they are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment. Dyslexia is manifested by variable difficulty with different forms of language, including problems reading, conspicuous problems acquiring proficiency in writing and spelling, and fluency. The Research How widespread is dyslexia?
Dyslexia occurs among people of all economic and ethnic backgrounds. It affects boys and girls equally. Often, more than one member of a family has dyslexia. In addition, dyslexia runs in families; parents with dyslexia are very likely to have children with dyslexia. For some people, their dyslexia is identified early in their lives, but for others, their dyslexia goes unidentified until they get older. People who are very bright can be dyslexic. They are often gifted in areas that do not require strong language skills, such as art, computer science, drama, math, mechanics, music, sales, and sports. As many as 1520% (1 out of 5) of the US population have some of the symptoms of dyslexia, including slow or inaccurate reading, poor spelling, poor writing, or mixing up similar words. Not all will qualify for
special education, but they are likely to struggle with many aspects of academic learning and are likely to benefit from systematic, explicit, instruction in reading, writing, and language. As shown in the figure, scientific evidence now provides empirical support for the unexpected nature of dyslexia. The left panel shows the relationship between IQ and reading in typical readers. Here, IQ and reading both track together; they are dynamically linked. In contrast, the right panel shows the relationship between IQ and reading in dyslexic children. Here, IQ and reading dissociate; IQ and reading are uncoupled. IQ and reading go their own separate ways. In practical terms, these data provide strong evidence that in dyslexia, a person can have a very high IQ and yet read at a much lower level.
E. Ferrer, B.A. Shaywitz, J.M. Holahan, K. Marchione, and S.E. Shaywitz Psychological Science 2010 Although a number of dyslexia theories have been proposed, a strong consensus now supports the phonological theory, which recognizes that speech is natural, while reading is acquired and must be taught. In order to read, a child must acquire the "alphabetic principle"the insight that spoken words can be pulled apart into the elemental particles of speech and that the letters in a written word represent these sounds. Results from large and well-studied populations confirm
that a deficit in phonology represents the most robust and specific correlate of dyslexia and form the basis for the most successful and evidence-based interventions designed to improve reading [summarized in (S Shaywitz, 2003)]. Now researchers not only know that dyslexia is born of biology, but they also are getting closer to confirming the key brain areas that are affected. New insights will help pinpoint therapies and improve treatment.
The exact causes of dyslexia are still not completely clear; but anatomical and brain imaging studies show differences in the way the brain of a dyslexic person develops and functions. Characteristics of Dyslexia Most students with dyslexia will exhibit about 10 of the traits and behaviors described in the following slides. These characteristics can vary from day-to-day or minute-to-minute. The most consistent thing about students with dyslexia is their
inconsistency. General Characteristics Appears bright, highly intelligent, and articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level. Labeled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, not trying hard enough, or behavior problem. High in IQ, yet may not test well academically; tests well orally, but not written.
Difficulty sustaining attention; seems hyper or daydreamer. Isnt behind enough or low enough to qualify for services Feels dumb; has poor self-esteem; hides or covers up weaknesses with ingenious compensatory strategies; easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing. Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales,
business, designing, building, or engineering. Seems to Zone Out or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses track of time. Learns best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids. VISION, READING, AND WRITING Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while
reading. Confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences, or verbal explanations. Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/ or words. Children and adults with Complains of feeling or seeing dyslexia can become avid and enthusiastic readers when non-existent movement while given learning tools that fit reading, writing, or copying. their Spells phonetically and inconsistently. creative learning
Reads and rereads with little style. comprehension. Hearing and Speech Has extended hearing; hears things not said or apparent to others; easily distracted by sounds. Difficulty putting thoughts into words; speaks in halting phrases; leaves sentences incomplete; stutters under stress; FACT Delayed speech does not always indicate a mispronounces long learning problem. Research has shown that words, or transposes
many highly intelligent children do not start talking until age three or four. Many of these phrases, words, and children's parents are musicians or syllables when speaking. mathematicians; these children usually grow up to have similar aptitudes. Writing and Motor Skills Trouble with writing or copying; pencil grip is unusual; handwriting varies or is illegible. Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports; difficulties with fine and /or gross motor skills and tasks; prone to motion-sickness. Can be ambidextrous, and often
confuses left/right, over/under Math and Time Management Has difficulty telling time, managing time, learning sequenced information or tasks, or being on time. Computing math shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks; knows answers, but cant do it on paper. Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with money. Can do arithmetic, but fails word problems; difficulty grasping algebra or higher math.
Memory and Cognition Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations and faces. Poor memory for sequences, facts and information that has not been experienced. Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds or words (little internal dialogue). Behavior, Health, Development, and Personality Extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly. Can be class clown, trouble-maker, or too quiet.
Had unusually early or late developmental stages (talking, crawling, walking, tying shoes). Prone to ear infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and chemical products. Can be an extra deep or light sleeper; bedwetting beyond appropriate age. Unusually high or low tolerance for pain. Strong sense of justice; emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection. Mistakes and symptoms increase dramatically with confusion, time pressure, emotional stress, or poor health. What does Dyslexia feel like? A Simulation Phonemes are the building blocks of language. Represented by letters of the alphabet, they are the component sounds of spoken words. Most people automatically hear, for example, that the word "goat" is made up of three sounds: "guh," "oh," and "tuh."
Reading requires the ability to map the phonemes we hear to letters on a page, and vice versa. But what happens when this basic skill, called decoding, doesn't come automatically? Imagine struggling to sound out every word because you can't distinguish among phonemes. Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with this phoneme translation key. Then use it to read the passage on the next page. When you're ready, click the link below. Phoneme translation key: When you see q z p b ys a, as in bat e, as in pet
Pronounce as d or t m b p er e, as in pet a, as in bat Read the passage aloud with a peer When you see q z p b ys a, as in bat
e, as in pet Pronounce as d or t m b p er e, as in pet a, as in bat Passage: We pegin our qrib eq a faziliar blace, a poqy like yours enq zine. Iq conqains a hunqraq qrillion calls qheq work qogaqhys py qasign. Enq wiqhin each one of qhese zany calls, each one qheq hes QNA, Qhe QNA coqe is axecqly qhe saze, a zess-broquceq rasuze. So qhe coqe in each call is iqanqical, a razarkaple puq veliq claiz.
Qhis zeans qheq qhe calls are nearly alike, puq noq axecqly qhe saze. Qake, for insqence, qhe calls of qhe inqasqines; qheq qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain. Now qhink apouq qhe way you woulq qhink if qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain. Heres the translation We begin our trip at a familiar place, a body like yours and mine. It contains a hundred trillion cells that work together by design. And within each one of these many cells, each one that has DNA, The DNA code is exactly the same, a mass-produced resume. So the code in each cell is identical, a remarkable but valid claim.
This means that the cells are nearly alike, but not exactly the same. Take, for instance, the cells of the intestines; that they're vital is certainly plain. Now think about the way you would think if those cells were the cells in your brain. Howd you do? Assessment and Diagnosis Before referring a student for a comprehensive evaluation, a school or district will track a student's progress with a brief screening test and identify whether the student is progressing at a "benchmark" level that predicts success in reading.
If a student is below that benchmark , school may immediately deliver intensive and individualized supplemental reading instruction before determining whether the student needs a comprehensive evaluation that would lead to a designation of special education eligibility. Some students simply need more structured and systematic instruction to get back on track; they do not have learning disabilities. For those students putting the emphasis on preventive or early intervention makes sense. These practices of teaching first, and then determining who needs diagnostic testing based on response to instruction, are encouraged by federal policies known as Response to Intervention (RTI). If the student continues to struggle
Only after all strategies and services in general education are exhausted, and ongoing data has been collected, if the individual continues to struggle, the student may need specialized education. A Child Study Team comprehensive evaluation is recommended. The purpose is to: identify the cause of the problem
document the disability develop a focused remedial program beginning at the students current level of reading development A Child Study Team evaluation is the process of gathering information to identify the factors contributing to a students difficulty with learning to read and spell. Information is gathered from parents and teachers to understand development and the educational opportunities that have been Evaluati Evaluati provided.
on Tests are given to identify strengths and weaknesses that lead to a on Report diagnosis and a tentative road map for intervention. Report Conclusions and recommendations are developed and reported. A comprehensive evaluation typically includes intellectual and academic achievement testing, as well as an assessment of the critical underlying language skills that are closely linked to dyslexia. These include receptive (listening) and expressive (spoken) language skills, phonological skills including phonemic
awareness, and also a students ability to rapidly name letters and names. A students ability to read lists of words in isolation, as well as words in context, should also be assessed. The testing can be conducted by trained school or outside specialists. Dyslexia Screening The Dyslexia screening test is very generalized in the questions it asks. Being screened to take the comprehensive test does not necessarily mean a person has dyslexia. A number of other conditions could exist that would prevent
someone from passing through the screening process. The questions on any dyslexia screening test are so generalized that a person who takes is could have ADHD, delayed learning, and even autism. The important thing is that there has been an indication made that something is wrong and some additional testing should be done. A dyslexia screening is not the same thing as a comprehensive test. Comprehensive tests are used to determine what type of dyslexia a person might have and at what severity. It is important for teachers to collect data on observations of warning signs of reading difficulties Common Warning Signs of Dyslexia-PreK to 2 nd grade
Signs evident for 6 mo. or more Language: Learning the alphabet, numbers, and days of the week Naming people and objects Speaking precisely and using a varied, age-appropriate vocabulary Staying on topic Getting or staying interested in stories and books Learning to speak (delayed compared to his peers) Understanding the relationship between speaker and listener Pronouncing words correctly (Example: says mazagine instead of
magazine) Learning and correctly using new vocabulary words Distinguishing words from other words that sound similar Rhyming words Understanding instructions/directions Repeating what has just been said Reading: Naming letters Recognizing letters, matching letters to sounds, and blending sounds when speaking Learning to read as expected for his/her age Associating letters with sounds, understanding the difference between sounds in words Accurately blending letter sounds within words
Recognizing and remembering sight words Remembering printed words Distinguishing between letters and words that look similar Learning and remembering new vocabulary words Keeping ones place and not skipping over words while reading Showing confidence and interest in reading Writing: Learning to copy and write at an age-appropriate level Writing letters, numbers, and symbols in the correct order Spelling words correctly and consistently most of the time Proofreading and correcting written work Social-Emotional: Making and keeping friends Interpreting people's non-verbal cues, body language,
and tone of voice Being motivated and self-confident about learning Other: Sense of direction/spatial concepts (such as left and right) Performing consistently on tasks from day to day Interventions and Strategies Early intervention is essential. Of children who display reading problems in first grade, 74% will be struggling readers in ninth grade and into adulthood unless they receive informed and explicit instruction in phonemic awareness. While there is no cure for dyslexia, there is a range of interventions
that can help students with dyslexia with reading and writing. The amount and type of intervention necessary will depend on the severity of dyslexia. A combination of instructional methods meet individual needs is the treat students with dyslexia. designed to most effective way to What Are the Key Instructional Requirements? Research validated instruction that is:
Direct and Explicit Each skill, rule of language, and strategy for reading and spelling words must be taught clearly and directly. Systematic and Structured Instruction follows a systematic scope and sequence of skills, starting at a beginning level to ensure mastery of foundational skills and filling in gaps in a students repertoire of skills. Multisensory Uses techniques that incorporate a combination of auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic input. Cumulative Skill instruction and small amounts of new information must be taught in steps with constant review and practice. Provide greater intensity of instruction Increased frequency and duration of instruction Research-based instruction in the five components
of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension), as well as writing, and spelling Have patience, yet high expectations Break work into smaller chunks Focus child on your lips when pronouncing words or listening for sounds Give more time and patience to finishing work Give additional testing time Collect on-going assessment (informal and formal) data and careful monitoring of progress. Provide a quiet work area Effective Reading Instruction
for Students with Reading Difficulties Direct instruction must be provided in the following areas at the appropriate level of difficulty and with substantial amounts of practice, so students can experience frequent success. 1. Phonemic Awareness 6. Phonics and Decoding Skills 2. Alphabet Knowledge 7. Letter Formation and Spelling 3. Concepts of Print 8. Fluency
4. Oral Language Development 9. Vocabulary Knowledge 5. Sight Word Vocabulary 10. Comprehension 1. Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness teaches students how to recognize and identify phonemes (sounds) in spoken words. It is the ability to recognize, identify, and manipulate individual speech sounds.
It helps students to recognize that even very short words, such as hat are actually made up of three phonemes h, a, and t. Another part of phonemic awareness involves understanding you can manipulate phonemes to change words, such as changing the h to a c to create the word, cat. Students must also acquire the ability to recognize and produce a rhyme, segment sounds, and blend sounds. If a student lacks phonemic awareness then
Expose to nursery rhymes, poems, and chants with much rhythm and rhyme. Provide opportunities for repeated listening to songs, poems, and chants. Practice choral reading of familiar song lyrics, poems, chants, and refrains. Use alliterative literature to help students develop the concept of beginning sounds. Clap the rhythm of first and last names and in words to hear syllables. Play I spy something that rhymes with Have students clap each time they hear a rhyming word. Use picture cards or sets of items for initial or final sound isolation.
When students know the text well, pause before each rhyming word to allow students an opportunity to supply the word. Play Guess My Word segmenting sounds of a single syllable word. Use Elkonin Sound Boxes, and the sounds of a single syllable word. The student slides a chip or a letter(s) into each cell of the Elkonin box. The example shows an Elkonin Box for the word sheep, which consists of three phonemes (sounds): sh/ee/p. sh ee
p 2. Alphabet Knowledge Alphabet knowledge is the ability to recognize and name the letters of the alphabet. This ability appears to be the second most important instructional factor in learning to read. Alphabet knowledge is highly correlated with, and usually predictive of later reading success.
Intervention may be needed if the student is unable to recognize the letters of the alphabet when shown the letters, is unable to point to the letters of the alphabet, or is unable to match uppercase and lowercase letters. If a student lacks alphabet knowledge Practice letter recognition tasks with a variety of fonts, sizes, or mediums. Match upper and lowercase letter pairs. Create scavenger hunts locating and tagging letters within known text or around the classroom. Read a wide variety of alphabet books to help students recognize the
letters and learn the sequence of the alphabet. Prepare a blank book and label the pages with the letters of the alphabet. Have students cut out letters from cereal boxes, catalogs, magazines, and newspapers and then paste. Practice one-to-one pointing while reading the alphabet chunking letter groups one at a time ABCD then EFGH etc. Create a collection of materials to encourage students to freely explore the alphabet including letter stamps, flashcards, dry-erase boards, cereal boxes, catalogs, magazines, and newspapers. When teaching the alphabet, be sure that it appears on a chart
where students can see it constantly, preferably at eye level. Using just a few letters at a time, work with students until they can instantly tell you which letter comes before or after any other letter. Place a thin layer of salt or fine sand in the bottom of a shoebox lid and have students trace letters with their fingers in the sand or salt. Locate letter shapes found in the environment. Present a letter and discuss its characteristic shape (ascender such as the letter h or a descender such as the letter p.) Play computer games focusing on letter recognition. Sort magnetic letters or letter tiles by physical attributes (color, circles, lines). Create activities with letter puzzles, sandpaper letters, shaving cream, clay, and Wikki Stix, etc. Use the word wall to read and point to the letter sequences in a
students name and in sight words. 3. Concepts about Print It is the early understandings of print. Can the student identify where to start reading and where to go next indicating that they know about return sweep? When asked to point while the teacher reads, can the student slide their finger along the line of print moving left to right and return to the left margin(understanding directionality)? Can the student match one spoken word with one written word? Can the student locate known letters and find a word that starts with a specific letter? Can the student distinguish letter features when they are embedded in words? Is the student familiar with print terminology such as letter, word, uppercase, lowercase, period, question mark, etc.?
If a student does not demonstrate routine left-to-right directionality then Explicitly model one-to-one pointing while reading aloud, thinking aloud for the return sweep, left page before right page, and looking left to right across new words. Ask the student to point to where the reader should start to read. Use big books or enlarged poems to demonstrate left-to-right reading.
Arrange magnetic letters in ABC order, varying the lines of print in vertical order. (ABCDABCDEFG) Create a board game where the pawns move along a path from left to right and top to bottom. Have the student read the alphabet chart with a pointer, moving from left to right. Have the student drop pennies or counters into an egg carton from left to right.
Use a green start dot at the beginning and a red stop dot at the end. Have the student locate or highlight the first letter of a word in a variety of texts. Have the student point one-to-one while the teacher points above the text. If a student does not routinely demonstrate one-toone matching then Consider the font size, spacing, and placement of text when selecting books. Prompt for voice/text matching: Did your voice match the words you see?
Did you have enough words on that page to match the words you said? You said(Repeat how the student read it as you point.) That didnt match. Read it again to make your voice match the words. Have the student point to and name objects and/or known words. Have the student use an extended pointer (drinking straw, chopstick, etc.). Generate a short sentence with the student. Cut apart the words and have the student reassemble. Generate a short dictation by the student and reread with one-to-one pointing. If a student is unfamiliar with print terminology then Have student construct his/her name with magnetic letters. Explain the difference between a letter and a word. After shared reading, have student frame letters and words. Provide a sentence strip of a short dictated sentence and
have student count the letters and words. Have student highlight specific items (periods, spaces, capital letters, tall letters, etc.) in a short poem. Have student discriminate between two words beginning with the same sound, a long word, and a short word by matching the picture (e.g., bat/banana or hat/hippopotamus). 4. Oral Language Development Language plays a critical role in learning. All children come to school with an oral language system that does not precisely match written language. Some children have had broader experiences as well as opportunities to hear written language. Hearing conversation every day is essential. As children hear new vocabulary,
they can incorporate it into their own repertoire. Some children may be making good progress in learning about and using language, and yet not realize how to use this knowledge as a resource when reading. Language knowledge is one of the most important tools children can have. If a student lacks background knowledge and expressive language for common objects and concepts then Respond and converse with the student in complete sentences. Provide opportunities for dramatic play in small groups using themes such as store, bus,
home, etc. Provide many opportunities for time at the listening workstation. Read aloud books with playful refrains for shared reading. Allow for buddy reading of shared books and poems that have been read aloud frequently in shared reading. Create simple caption books around such topics as food, recess, friends, school, tools labeling the nouns. Read and talk about books, characters, expressions of characters, details in the pictures, actions, predictions from the pictures, problems and solutions, and areas of interest or connections.
Facilitate conversations about the details of field trips by taking photos and commenting on discoveries as well as feelings. Encourage participation in show and tell. Read, think, and talk about different versions of the same story. Routinely provide turn and talk opportunities for students to talk about their learning. 5. Sight Word Vocabulary A sight word is defined as a word that the reader knows instantly. The reader is able to go from the printed form of the word to the spoken form automatically. A special set of words are expected to become a part of every students sight vocabulary. These are words that occur frequently in reading and writing. Because these words appear frequently, it is essential that students recognize them instantly. If a student cannot
recognize them instantly, they cannot become fluent readers. Student often confuse certain sight words, especially those that have similar beginnings, such as when, where and what, or this, that, and those. Students whose sight vocabularies are not at grade level will need some direct intervention to help them bring their sight vocabulary up to grade level. In advancing from grade to grade, students should increase their sight vocabulary at each grade level. If a student lacks appropriate sight word vocabulary then Teach students to visualize the words by outlining the shape of the word. Focus on over-learning two to three words per week or month as needed. Provided individualized word card rings of the words they know. Provide students with a card with the word on one side and a pictorial
representation of the word on the other side. If the word cannot be represented with the picture, then the student must see and hear the word. Have students practice writing the word in different mediums (e.g., wikki stix). Take a word card on a scavenger hunt around the room. Look on charts and in books to find the word. Highlight the word within photocopied text. Have the student count the number of times the word appears in a given text. After a shared reading, have the student use a framing card to locate the
given word. Have the student build the word using magnetic letters and then write the word. Play My Pile/Your Pile. Flash word cards (no more than 5-7). Students must name the word in a couple of seconds to keep a card in their pile. Practice and graph the number of sight words the student can read in two minutes. Use a listening workstation where students can hear and follow along with the printed form of the story. Use computer-based stories where the words are highlighted as they are spoken and/or where the reader places the cursor on individual words in order to hear that word being pronounced. During a book introduction, have the student name and frame words being learned.
When a student stops at a known word, say, You know that word. Have student name and sort words based on the number of letters, initial letter, known words, challenging words, etc. 6. Phonics and Decoding Instruction Readers must know the association between a letter or letter combinations and the sound it represents. Decoding instruction teaches students how to pronounce a word by giving the correct sounds associated with the letters in the word. Instruction also teaches students how to decode multisyllabic words such as crocodile, and apply
previously learned rules so they have a better understanding of new words. If a student does not understand that letters represent sounds then Work on two or three distinctly different sounds at a time. Provide opportunities for letter-picture sorts and letter-object sorts. Create collages of magazine photos representing a given sound.
Play I Spy Something That Begins With Play matching games and memory games with letters and pictures. Make books labeling pictures, all with the same beginning sound. Assign one letter on which to become an expert (its sound, shape, what it reminds you of, how your mouth is formed to make that sound, etc.). Routinely practice reciting the key word pictures represented in the ABC chart. Pick an object and makes its initial letter in a variety of mediums (clay, chalk, crayon). Paint a large consonant and surround it with pictures of things that start with it. Practice shared and interactive writing of labels, signs,
and messages modeling the isolation of the first sound and writing the letter for that sound. If a student does not locate words based on the initial sound then Place labeled cards to match pictures or items based on the first letter sound. Sort words/pictures based on the first letter sound. Use a masking card to isolate the first letter of a word in a text. During a book introduction, ask student to locate an unfamiliar word based on the first letter (e.g., Prompt: What letter would you expect to see at the beginning of?). Photocopy a short text with pictures. Have student highlight initial sound of key words and the picture that gives the clue for that word. If a student does not systematically decode
polysyllabic words then Model how to divide words into syllables. Use a whiteboard to build new words with more complex rimes (-atch, ight, -ound). Systematically build familiarity with prefixes and suffixes. Show student how to mask prefixes and suffixes with a finger. Have student cut words apart from word strips. Have student highlight or circle familiar parts and letter clusters. If a student does not apply decoding strategies then Teach that there are three kinds of words:
Sight words: The kind you know and recognize in a snap. Sound out: The kind you can slide across slowly and read. Use analogy man-can: The kind that remind you of a known word. Use word wall activities: Present activities that create familiarity with common word parts (rimes, blends, affixes). Teach how to make analogies to known words and model how to notice familiar word parts in text. Play Guess My Word by giving one clue at a time to reveal the mystery word from the word wall. Write a word on a whiteboard and demonstrate how to
chunk familiar clusters across a longer word. Teach students to mark off familiar affixes (-ed, -ing). Provide an At-a-Glance personal word wall for the student to add to and reference during reading and writing. Provide word sorts and word hunts in which students search for specific features. Model how to use decoding strategies 7. Letter Formation and Spelling Instruction If a student lacks instant letter formation then Play Flash and Write. Using letter cards, flash a letter for the student to name, cover it while the student quickly forms the letter, and check the card against the formed letter.
Explicitly teach sets of letters that have the same starting spot (e.g., r, n, m). Practice starting spots and verbalize the formation path (e.g., around the loop, up, up, and down for the letter d). Provide multiple opportunities to trace letters, using the correct starting spots. If the student lacks encoding skills then Create word family charts based on common spelling patterns. Categorize words on a word wall based on common spelling
patterns. Use word building and making words materials (e.g., letter tiles, magnetic letters, scrabble letters) to practice taking apart and reading words with CVC (pet), CVCE (bike) patterns. Sort words according to spelling patterns. Play games such as Memory and Go Fish. Create anchor charts containing words with specific letter/sound relationships and spelling patterns. Place No Excuse Words on a word wall. Students will begin to develop word consciousness for the spelling of these words in their writing as well as noticing them in oral language and reading. Write words in thick, black ink on sentence strips. Cut around the word so students can see the word shape. Place the words on the wall alphabetically.
Provide opportunities to practice No Excuse Words daily using the following activities: SPEED READING Practice reading No Excuse Words quickly to build fluency. BE A MIND READER Students number their papers. The teacher thinks of a No Excuse Word and then gives clues for that word. NO EXCUSE BINGO This game is similar to Bingo. Each student needs a word card (9-25 squares) and chips to cover the words. Students write No Excuse Words randomly on their word card. The teacher calls a word out and if it is on the students card, they mark it with a chip. REVIEW ENDINGS WITH THE NO EXCUSE WORDS Begin with just one ending, s. Then do another ending such as ing or ed. Then combine them so the students are listening for all the words and endings. FLASHLIGHT Flashlight, flashlight, shine your light on the word
that we will write. WORD WALL AEROBICS Tall Letters (t, b, l, f, etc.): Students stand and stretch arms to the ceiling. Middle Letters (a, e, m, z, etc.): Students place arms on hips. Low Letters (p, q, g, etc.): Students touch their toes. MAKE A SENTENCE Dictate a sentence using several No Excuse Words. Vary the sentences to require the use of question marks and exclamation marks. Students can also create their own sentences. SAY IT LIKE Choose a No Excuse Word and ask students to chant the spelling of the word in different voices: cheerleader, football player, elf, giant, soft, loud, whisper, computer, baby, or President etc. DRILL SERGEANT Listen as I say each word. Then chant the
word you have heard. No excuse words It is fun. Now we are officially done! WORD PROCESS Type No Excuse Words on the computer. Change each vowel to a different color. ABC ORDER Write No Excuse Words in ABC order. RAINBOW WORDS Write No Excuse Words using a different color for each letter. STAIRSTEPS Write No Excuse Words as if they are stairs, adding one letter at a time. S SP SPE SPEL SPELL 8. Fluency Instruction
Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural, as if they are speaking. Readers who have not yet developed fluency read slowly, word-by-word. Their oral reading is choppy and plodding. Fluent readers demonstrate appropriate stress on words, pausing, and phrasing, intonation, and use of punctuation while reading in a way that reflects understanding. Fluent readers self-correct using meaning information and knowledge of decoding strategies. Fluency is important because if a student spends a lot of time trying to focus on reading individual words, it is easy to lose track of the text as a whole, and they may not properly understand what they are reading.
FLUENCY STRATEGIES: 1. Echo Reading In echo reading the teacher reads first and the student repeats what the teacher reads. Material can be read in either phrases or sentences. 2. Choral Reading The teacher reads a short passage or poem aloud with expression. The students and teacher discuss the text in order to ensure that they have a shared understanding of the passage. Then the class reads the passage aloud in unison. Students can then complete paired repeated readings of the text followed by having the option of reading the passage aloud in front of their classmates. 3. Sustained Silent Reading (Accelerated Reader Book) This gives students a daily opportunity to read and increases the amount of connected text students are responsible for reading.
4. Readers Theater A group of students practice reading material that can be adapted easily for reading out loud. There is no need to memorize their parts, create a set, props, or costumes. Students are expected to create their performance entirely through their expressive reading of the text. 5. Repeated Timed Readings A student reads for one minute. Use a passage at their instructional level. The text should be decodable not predictable. Count the number of words read and graph the results. Repeat this procedure to plot improvement on the graph. 6. Paired Repeated Readings Students read their passage silently. The first partner then reads his or her passage aloud to their partner a total of three times. During each reading, the partner listens carefully and comments on ways in which the performance has improved. If a student frequently appeals for help and gives up easily
Be cautious of jumping in too quickly and teaching helplessness. Set an expectation that students initiate some problem-solving strategies before being helped. Use a bookmark illustrating strategies you have practiced. Ask student to pick one and try it. Students read a passage orally and the teacher provides guidance and feedback using the following questions and prompts: Fluency questions/prompts: Does that sound right? Does that look right? Does that make sense? Look at the word, does it look like? You saiddoes it look like? Look for chunks you know and say them.
Look at the beginning of the word and try it again. Look at the end of the word and try it again. Make your reading sound like the characters are talking. Make your voice go up when you see the question mark at the end. Make your voice go down when you see the period at the end. Listen to my voice as I read the next sentence. Am I reading it fluently? Now you try. Read it like you are talking. Try it. Could it beor? Read that again and try a word that would make sense and sounds right her. You saidIs that how we would say it? If a student misreads punctuation, affecting comprehension Model the difference between word-by-word and fluent phrasing. Model a variety of intonations and adjusted reading rates.
Once student easily attends to print, encourage reading without pointing to every word. Find texts with refrains and repetition. Glide a masking card along the text from left to right to encourage eye movement across the text. Provide many opportunities for reading lots of easier, familiar texts. Photocopy a passage and mark the natural phrases with slash marks. Students listen to your voice while you model fluent reading during read alouds. Students self-monitor their reading by going back and rereading when it does not sound or look like they
think it should. Students practice dialogue to make reading sound like the characters are talking. Teach punctuation as road signs. Explicitly teach how the author uses punctuation marks to signal how to read a passage. Ask student, What should your voice do when you see a comma, period, a question mark, or an exclamation point? Have student point to the important punctuation marks that show him/her when to slow down.
Photocopy a passage eliminating punctuation. Show how punctuation placement affects reading. 9. Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary knowledge is defined as the ability to go from the printed form of a word to its meaning. Vocabulary instruction teaches students to recognize words they are reading while building and understanding new words. A student may know the meaning of a word at five different stages: 1.) Has no recognition of the word. Has never seen it before. 2.) Recognizes the word. Has heard of the word. Has no knowledge of meaning. 3.) Recognizes the word in context and has a vague understanding of its meaning.
4.) Knows the meaning of the word in the context in which it appears. 5.) Knows the multiple meanings of the word (if they exist) and can use the word in thinking, speaking, or writing. If a student does not comprehend vocabulary or terminology basic to the text/plot meaning then Directly teach vocabulary related to the topic or important to the story. Have student preview and identify words he/she does not know. Have student sort words or phrases under category headings. Demonstrate and practice inferring for meaning using context clues. Place newly learned vocabulary words on a word wall. Directly teach vocabulary related to the topic or important to the story. Have student preview and identify words he/she does not know. Have student sort words or phrases under category headings. Demonstrate and practice inferring for meaning using context clues. Place newly learned vocabulary words on a word wall. Have student turn to a page and see if they can find a specific word.
Make sure student encounters a new word many times and in many contexts. Assist student to understand words that are used figuratively. Integrate previously known definitions with new ones as they meet them in texts to realize that a word can have several definitions. Help student to understand words that are used figuratively. Notice and discuss new and interesting words, record them, and encourage student to actively use them when speaking or writing. 10. Comprehension Instruction Comprehension has been called the essence of reading. It is the reason we read. Comprehension instruction teaches students to become capable of understanding written material and to monitor their own understanding while they
read. Readers are encouraged to ask questions if they notice gaps in their understanding, while also linking what they are reading to information they have previously learned. If a student does not make predictions for plausible outcomes then Give guided practice in making predictions based on illustrations, titles, and background knowledge. Think aloud to model making multiple predictions based on clues and background knowledge. Think aloud to model making predictions and revising them based on evidence from the story.
If a student does not recall information from a read aloud Use an interactive format during read alouds. Stop periodically to ask questions and to share responses during reading. Have student describe what he/she pictures after hearing a text read aloud. Stop at points in a read aloud to illustrate/sketch what is happening so far. Have students reenact parts of the story. If a student presents many misconceptions regarding literal information then
Provide more supportive book introductions. Check comprehension more frequently on shorter portions of text. Set a specific purpose before reading. Focus on just one story element at a time. Use story maps and graphic organizers. Practice the strategy of visualizing as you go, sharing quick sketches or verbal descriptions. Teach student to find the 5 Ws who, what, where, when, why. If a student does not easily identify the main idea Practice with a detailed picture to identify the whole idea versus the details. Link important details together and name the way they connect to the
main idea. Teach student to look at the beginning or end of the passage or paragraph to locate the topic sentence and highlight it. Have student create titles for paragraphs, chapters, or articles. Cut titles off of short articles and have student match them up. Have student create a list of key words and write a summary statement. If a student does not recall events or details in sequential order then Model and practice verbally retelling the beginning, middle, and end of a familiar story. Have student sequence sentence strips or pictures telling a familiar story.
Photocopy a short story to be cut into chunks of text and sequenced. Photocopy a story and have student highlight signal words that indicate sequence. Play memory games sequencing objects, books, numbers, or events of the day. Link sequencing to summarizing small portions of the text as you go. If a student does not stop and monitor when meaning breaks down then Consider the book selection. Is it just right for the student to access vocabulary and concepts? Cover the text but not the picture, and before student reads a given
page ask him/her to predict what will happen on that page. Encourage students predictions, connections, and visualizations. Periodically have student write or tell what is happening in the story so far. Explicitly repeat frequently to student, Everything you read should make sense. Have student arrange sentences or pictures in logical sequence. If a student does not sustain information across a longer text then Have student stop at appropriate points during
reading to recount what is happening before reading on. Have student do a quick write for one minute after each portion of the text. Have student do a quick draw, a fast sketch showing character/action after each portion of text. If a student does not reread to deepen understanding then Use a think aloud to model self-questioning and how rereading supports having questions answered. Make sure texts are at an appropriate level and interest to student. Provide more supportive book introductions and picture walks to build
background knowledge. Have student write questions about the text/topic in a response journal. Teach how to go back in the text to locate the answer to ones own questions. During discussions of the text, find opportunities to return to the text for evidence or to listen again to the authors use of words. Have student confirm or revise their predictions by asking him/her, Is that what I thought would happen? If a student does not efficiently scan text for key information to answer question and/or locate supportive evidence then Set a specific purpose for reading based on genre, structure,
interest, or predictions. Teach student to read questions first to help set a purpose. Have student recall the general sequence of what has already been read and to segment the passage into sections to help with searching. Have student highlight key words in text that link to the question. Teach student to notice signal words (first, next, in addition, finally, in conclusion) and to anticipate the possible answer and possible words/phrases to scan for. If a student does not use informational text features to gather information before and during reading then Model how different text features are used to help make
meaning in the text. Have student locate specific text features across a variety of informational texts and build familiarity with what each provides. Provide a more in-depth introduction to include the layout of informational text features. Have student write captions, make a table of contents, generate graphs and charts for books that do not have them or for books they create on a topic of interest. If a student does not recognize informational text structures to help set a purpose for reading then
Introduce six text structures and their attributes, showing specific examples (descriptive, chronological, problem/solution, compare/contrast, questions/answer, cause/effect). Have students work in pairs to generate six sentences on one topic representing each structure. Create an anchor chart of signal words associated with each structure. Read aloud informational text and think aloud what structure the text might be and why.
Before reading, have student anticipate the content based on the identified structure. Using a stack of informational texts, have student groups label the text structure with sticky notes. Have student use a graphic organizer matched to each text structure to take notes. Common Accommodations for Students with Dyslexia
READING Provide access to audiobooks Provide access to text-to-speech software Provide a set of textbooks for home use Only ask the student to read aloud if he/she volunteers Provide extra time for reading assignments Provide a quiet environment for reading Allow student to preview reading materials Spelling Reduce spelling lists Design spelling tests with a common
phonetic skills Do not take off points for spelling errors on written work Allow access to a spellcheck Provide access to word prediction software Writing Provide a scribe Provide access to speech-to-text software Offer alternative projects instead of written reports Provide written copies of notes Minimize the amount of copying from the board Allow student to use a keyboard to take notes Allow student to take record lectures Reduce written work Provide a letter formation strip
Provide graphic organizers Grade assignments on content rather than form Consider providing materials with a special font, such as Dyslexie Font, from http://www.dyslexiefont.com/en/dyslexia-font/ Math Allow use of calculator Allow use of math tables Allow use of manipulatives Allow finger counting or sub-vocalizing Provide graph paper Provide scrap paper Provide frequent checks for accuracy Highlight the operation to be performed
Homework Reduce homework Allow student to dictate answers Allow computer keyboarded homework Limit time spent on homework Email list of assignments to student/parent/Post on website Provide a written list of assignments Testing Allow student to take tests orally Provide for extra time Read directions aloud Read test questions aloud Provide alternatives to testing (oral projects or
videos, etc.) Provide a quiet testing area with minimal distractions Grade in collaboration with special educator Clarify or simplify written directions 10 things every child with Dyslexia want you to know 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
10. I am not stupid or lazy. I need time to get things done. I may be dyslexic, but I can still shine in lots of ways. It might take me a long time to get it, but when I get it, it sticks! When you break things down into smaller steps I find it really, really helpful. Sometimes I just need to work in a different way than the others in class to get the job done. I try my best but do get frustrated. I need you to be patient with me. My dyslexia does not only affect my literacy skills. I find visual reminders helpful as I sometimes find remembering everything a bit tricky. I often like to work in a quiet room as I can find noises distracting My dyslexia is just one part of my character. It does not define who I am or want to be.
For further reading Teach Them All to Read: Catching the Kids Who Fall Through the Cracks by Elaine K. McEwan (2002) Overcoming Dyslexia by Sally Shaywitz (2003) Questions?????? Contact Gale Ferraro, [email protected] This presentation can be viewed at: http://www.medford.k12.nj.us/Page/2886 District Share Drive (X) Pupil Personnel Services Dyslexia Training
Statement of Assurance This is to certify that I have thoroughly read all slides in this presentation to complete the Medford Township Public Schools Dyslexia Training, as required by NJ Regulation A3606/3607. Print name: ________________________________ Signature: __________________________________ Date: ______________