Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Day 1 Section 7 Production Processes Gas Plants & Crude Stabilisation 1. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Overview of Production Processes Gas Plants Gas processing plant separates gas from its contaminants into marketable product by separation and treatment. Gas plants - nearly always land based, fixed installations, close to shipping, connected by

pipelines. Four main processes to remove the impurities: Oil and Condensate Removal Acid Gas (Sulphur and Carbon Dioxide) Removal Mercury, Water, Nitrogen, Helium Removal Separation of Natural Gas Liquids Fractions 2. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Raw natural gas - Composition Methane (CH4), Ethane (C2H6), Propane (C3H8), Butanes, Pentanes Acid gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), mercaptans (CH3SH) &

(C2H5SH) Mercury Other gases present are Nitrogen (N2), Helium (He), water vapour & liquid Liquid hydrocarbons (natural gas condensate, gasoline, crude oil) Water, sand, debris, etc. 3. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Gas Plant Process Flare

4. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Typical gas plant 5. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Gas Plant Processes Condensate and water removal Acid Gas Removal

Dehydration (removal of water) 6. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Fractionation towers Flare system Storage tank area Slug Catcher Gas plant

7. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Ancillary units/ operations Slug Catcher Gas Flare Utilities Boilers Power Generation Waste Water Treatment Maintenance 8.

2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Component He N2 Helium Nitrogen 0.05 5.60 H2S

Hydrogen Sulphide 2.40 CO2 Carbon Dioxide 3.85 C1 Methane C2 Ethane

4.73 C3 Propane 1.68 C4 C5 C6 Benzene C7+ Butanes Pentanes

Hexanes Benzene C7-C20 Hydrocarbons 0.91 0.50 0.41 0.06 2.06 Mercaptans Mercaptans (C1-C5) 0.05 Total

9. Mole% Dry basis 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd 77.71 100.00 BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues For Gas Processing Plants a) b) c)

d) e) f) g) h) i) 10. Hazardous Substances Thermal Environment Noise Asbestos and Other Fibres Ergonomic Radiation Maintenance & Turnaround Hazards Other Hazards Environmental hazards

2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (a) Hazardous Substances Process streams and contaminants crude oil, natural gas, (condensate), Mercury, Radon, Hydrogen sulphide and sulphur compounds Purchased chemicals and products catalysts, treatment chemicals (amines, caustic) - this requires a chemical inventory and MSDS information Generated hazardous substances e.g. welding fume Generated waste and waste disposal 11.

2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (b) Thermal Environment General environment & location Gas plants are usually located on land relatively close to the crude/gas field where there is access to shipping and/or pipelines. This can be in cold or hot climates. 12. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

OH Issues (c) Noise Noise from process units, utilities and maintenance activities High noise sources are compressors and generators (typically >105 dBA) however with modern designs and improved engineering the new gas plants may be able to achieve noise levels < 85 dBA 13. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (d) Asbestos and Other Fibres

Removal of asbestos insulation 14. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (e) Ergonomic Ergonomic hazards associated with any facility Opening/closing valves poor posture 15. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

OH Issues (f) Radiation Ionizing Radiation level measurement, radiography Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) Non-Ionizing Radiation- Visible Lighting UV radiation (sun, welding) 16. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (g) Maintenance & Turnarounds Planned and unplanned shutdowns

Potential release of product Inspection of process equipment both external and internal confined space entry Turnarounds Increased workforce trained & untrained Untrained and unskilled workforce need training on O&G hazards 17. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (h) Other Hazards Location hazards on land, predatory animals, insects, disease (Cholera, Malaria, HIV)

Civil Unrest- stability of government Security of site. 18. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OH Issues (i) Environmental Hazards Environmental hazards earthquakes, hurricanes, flood, and fire 19. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd

BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Typical gas plant located near offshore oil/gas field 20. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry End of Section 7 Natural Gas Plant 21. 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002 Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

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