Underground Coal Gasification 26-27 Nov. 2015 New Delhi

Underground Coal Gasification 26-27 Nov. 2015 New Delhi

Underground Coal Gasification 26-27 Nov. 2015 New Delhi P K Jain IRS, ONGC SAARC Training Workshop on Sharing Experience on CBM, UCG and Coal Extraction Methodology Indias only Energy Company in Fortunes Worlds Most Admired List Coverage:

UCG Process in general - Reactions - SYNGAS composition - Linkage - Control - Type of Gasifiers - Stages in implementation - Site selection - Site characterization Utilization of UCG SYNGAS Indian efforts Case Histories 33 overseas Assets in 16 countries

2 Introduction: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the process that can recover the energy of coal seams without the extensive use of traditional mining operations In UCG, the primary product brought from underground is a Combustible fuel gas of low to intermediate heating content, 100 to 300 Btu/standard cubic foot (scf) (8842676 Kcal/m3) Highest Dividend-paying Company in India 3 What is Underground Coal

Gasification? Underground coal gasification (UCG) converts coal / lignite insitu into a gaseous product, commonly known as synthesis gas or syngas. UCG Process: Drilling of adjacent bore holes in the coal seam. Down hole ignition of the coal seam. Injection of a pressurised oxidant such as air/oxygen and steam. Removal of product gas to surface. Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts

4 Why UCG??? Growing energy requirement worldwide. Limited hydrocarbon reserves. Coal 82% of non-renewables.

India fourth largest reserves of coal in the world. Only 20-30% Coal/ lignite mineable. Huge scope for UCG to extract energy from un-mineable coal/ lignite. Most valuable Indian PSU 5 World Energy Scenario:

Total Primary Energy Supply by resource 1993, 2011 and 2020 (Source: WEC Survey of Energy Resources 1995, World Energy Resources 2013 and WEC World Energy Scenarios to 2050) A FORTUNE Global 500 Company 6 Coal/Lignite resources of India Coal up to a depth of 1200 m 306 Bt Lignite reserves 44 Bt


: 10 % RECOVERABLE RESOURCES : 28.4 BT UCG GAS (considering 2500 m3/ton) : 75 Trillion m3 CALORIFIC VALUE OF PRODUCED GAS : 3 5 MJ / m3 NATURAL GAS EQUIVALENT : 7.5 Trillion m3

CALORIFIC VALUE OF NATURAL GAS : 38 MJ / m3 33 overseas Assets in 16 countries 8 Gasification Reaction: Coal is gasified underground by injecting air or oxygen/steam through Boreholes into a reaction zone formed in the coal seam. The hot gaseous reaction products are Forced to migrate though the coal seam to an exit borehole where they are drawn form underground to the surface. Upon reaching the surface, the gases can be cleaned for direct use as a low-to-medium Btu gas, from upgrading to a substitute

natural gas (SNG), or for some other chemical feedstock (SynGas). Condensate consisting of phenol, tar, ammonia, carbonic acid, fatty acid, pyridine cynide and thio- cynate etc. is also produced along with syngas Fig. Schematic representation of an underground coal gasification reaction zone ONGC a Wealth Creator

9 Growth of UCG Cavity: 33 overseas Assets in 16 countries 10 Linking of UCG wells: Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts 11

Ignition of the Coal: O2 thru Large dia tube. Inert gas N2 thru small dia tube. A slug of silane (pyropheric gas) behind the N 2. Methane after silane. Silane in contact with O2, flame starts. A FORTUNE Global 500 Company 12 Control parameters Water, Blast rate # 21 Energy Company in the World

13 Cont Effect of gasification rate and water intrusion rate on the heating value of the product gases Excess water alters the heating value by decreasing the temp. and rate of char

reactions and hence altering the gas composition Effect of gasification rate on heating value at various water injection rates (Edgar and Gregg, 1981). Conversion factor: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg, 1 Btu/ft 3 = 37.26 kJ/m3, 1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3. Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts 14 Effect of Seam thickness and Water

intrusion on Heating value: Heat loss from an underground reaction zone to surrounding rock strata is expected to vary inversely with coal seam. In thin seams, temp. may be lower and reaction rates lower. Soviets studies

suggest that heating value of the product gas deteriorates rapidly for those seams less than 6 and gasification cannot sustain in seams less than 3.

Effect of seam thickness and water intrusion on UCG heating values (Anonn., 1977). Conversion factors: 1 ft = 0.3048m, 1 Btu/ft 3 = 37.26 kJ/m3. ONGC a Wealth Creator 15 Control parameters Air OR Oxygen The use of Oxygen instead of air: - Improves the Calorific Value (CV) of the Product gas, 3-5 MJ/m3 Vs. 13 MJ/m3 in the trial at EI Tremedal. - Improves gasification stability. - Reduces the volume of gas injected. #2 E&P Company in the world

16 Operating Pressure From an UCG gas generator, at constant air injection rate, a linear relation between gas loss and the difference between the square of the absolute pressure (averaged over the reaction zone) and the square of the atmospheric pressure. The slope, site specific, is proportional to the permeability of the seam.

Dependence of the relative value of the gas losses on the gas pressure in an underground gas generator (Pitkin, 1960). A FORTUNE Global 500 Company 17 Combustion and gasification products: Most valuable Indian PSU 18 Quality of Product gas: Oxidising agent (air/ oxygen)

Operating Pressure & Temperature Feedstock composition Seam thickness Moisture content of coal Oxygen to steam ratio- reducing ratio improves H 2 and CH4 while increasing ratio improves CO and CO2. 33 overseas Assets in 16 countries 19 Breakthrough of Air/ Oxygen Sometimes oxygen in the injected air gets mixed with the product gases prior to it

being exhausted from underground , thereby lowering its heating value and also increasing temp. of the production well. The breakthrough or bypass of air/ oxygen often signifies the end of the useful life of the UCG generator. The data shown are for Hanna II experiment, Heating

value and temp. as the function of time. Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts 20 Composition of typical dry UCG product gas: (Spanish Trial-Gasification with Oxygen) (Angrenskaya Gasification with Air Injection) H2 27% CH4

24% H2S 0% CO2 19% CO 7% N2 51% C0

18% H2 22% C02 31% (Calorific Value 13.6MJ/Nm3) CH4 1% (Calorific Value 3.5 MJ/Nm3) #2 E&P Company in the world

21 UCG syngas vs SCG syngas UCG product gas is similar to surface gasifier product. Higher CO 2 in UCG signifies the breakthrough of O2. Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts 22 CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point):

Basic design of the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) system (Hill and Shannon, 1981) Most valuable Indian PSU 23 Carbon Energy Bloodwood Trial: 24 Schematic Diagram of a Pilot: #2 E&P Company in the world 25

SLANT RIG Wellhead: 27 How to Proceed for UCG Implementation 28 UCG implementation Diagram:

Most valuable Indian PSU 29 UCG Site Criteria: Criteria for a suitable UCG site location: - Geology is key to safeguard environment - Geologically isolated deep beds - Deep aquifers should consist of saline, nonpotable water & have stratigraphic seals - Structural integrity & no possibility of cavity roof caving

Most valuable Indian PSU 30 Site Selection: Flow Diagram for Site Selection Topographical data Compilation and Analysis of existing data Geological Data Hydrological Data

Drilling of Boreholes Factors: Seam thickness Depth Coal rank Ground

water Coal reserve Geophysical Logging Seismic I nformation Geophysical Logging Site Selection

Boreholes Detail Field I nvestigation Hydrogeological studies Sample collection & Lab Studies Geo-chemical Studies Petro-physical Studies Geo-mechanical Studies Maceral Studies

Hydro-dynamic parameters Chemical composition Seismic Survey A FORTUNE Global 500 Company Precise Fault mapping Continuity of coal/ lignite beds 31

End usage of SYNGAS: #2 E&P Company in the world 32 Utilization of UCG SYNGAS: Primary product with air as oxidant: low BTU gas, best suited for onsite or near site use as a fuel for boilers, heaters, power generators, and kilns. (80-150 btu/scf ) As low heating value fuel, contains a sizable quantity of inert N2, and hence not cost effective for pipe transportation beyond 1 mile. For onsite use, it is a good source of heat. Oxygen/ steam : Medium heating value (200-300 btu/scf)Absence of N2, gas suitable for upgrade thru chemical processing to SNG and/or to several synthesis gas

compositions: # 21 Energy Company in the World 33 Up-gradation of Ucg syngas for different end usages: Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts 34 General Engineering design for Pilot :



35 Basic Processing of SYNGAS: A FORTUNE Global 500 Company 36 UCG IGCC Power Plant: 37 Ammonia Production:

38 Fischer Tropsch Process: 39 Indian efforts: Various companies ONGC, CIL, GIPCL, GMDC, NLC are

associated with UCG. 5 Sites (lignite) identified suitable for UCG by ONGC. Vastan (Gujarat ) lignite block prioritize for UCG pilot. Detailed Engineering design for pilot is in hand Block has been awarded by MoC to GIPCL. ONGC and GIPCL are in process for field trial. 40 Case Histories: 41 UCG International Scenario 2010:

A FORTUNE Global 500 Company 42 UCG Worldwide Sites: Worlds Number 3 Exploration & Production Company : Platts 43 Worldwide UCG Experience Coal Seam Depth & Thickness: A FORTUNE Global 500 Company

44 Current UCG Projects: Chinchilla UCG project by Linc Energy in Australia. Carbon Energy UCG project at Surat Basin, Australia. Eskom Plant in South Africa. Angren, Uzbekistan Commercial project. UCG Pilot at Thar, Pakistan

45 Chinchilla UCG project by Linc Energy in Australia: UCG process started in 1999 The salient features of the UCG process are as follows: 35000 tonnes of coal gasified- more than in any other UCG trial. Within the Rocky Mountain 1 trial- considered the most successful UCG trial in the United States- only 10,000 tonnes were gasified.

80 million Nm3 of gas produced at 4.5-5.7 MJ/m3. A maximum capacity of 80000 Nm3/hr or 675 tonnes of coal per day was reached at the Chinchilla plant. In comparison, the Rocky Mountain 1 trial achieved a maximum gasification rate of 200 tonnes of coal per day. The Chinchilla trial proved availability of gas production over 30 months-by far the longest ever recorded outside the ex-USSR.

46 UCG projects in Australia: 4 gasifier panels studied. Directional wells (1 km long) for linkage. Coiled tubing used for drilling. Trial with oxygen carried out. Demo FT facility for aviation fuel using UCG

syngas. De-commissioning of the process Environment agency vigilant. Carbon Energy made trial in Blood wood site with oxygen, waiting for permission from Environment agency for commercialization. 47 Thar-Pakistan: Thar Block Lignite reserves: 185 BT, Area: 900 Sq Km, Depth-122-180 m, thickness: 0.3-42 m, Avg. thickness: 21 m

No. of blocks: 12, Two (3 & 5) allocated for UCG Block 5: 64 sq km, Reserves: 1.4 BT - 4 coal seams below the casing depth, thickness 0.86 m to 3.58 m, 4 coal seams above the cased depth (130-145 m) Most valuable Indian PSU 48

Thar-Pakistan: 49 Thar-Pakistan: Initially planned directional drilling, drilling price quoted was 4 times that of whole of the gasifier Decided to drill vertical wells with reverse combustion technique for linking, total of 36 wells with spacing of 25-30 m as reverse combustion gives satisfactory results in this range

Drilling with 15 bit for 8 OD casing, casing cemented behind to isolate water aquifers at the depth 180-300 ft. Pilot operated in Dec.2011 Agencies involved: (i) Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) (ii) National Engineering & Scientific Commission (NESCOM) 50 Thar-Pakistan:

Difficulties faced In few of the wells of gasifier water aquifer could not be isolated after cementation of the casing Water level could not be brought down even after excessive pumping Problematic wells were identified through pump tests and excluded from gasifier 51 Thar-Gasifier Layout Layout plan of the gasifier Permeable water bearing body as intercepted in the gasifier wells

52 52 Thar-Pakistan Future Plan: As per media reports, funds have been approved by Pak Govt. for trial for 10 MW power production Based on the above results, 100 MW electricity planned to be produced after 3 yrs (As per syngas refiner dated 31st may 2012)

53 Thank You...

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