Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Lesson Overview

Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Lesson Overview 31.2 The Central Nervous System Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System THINK ABOUT IT The nervous system contains billions of neurons, each capable of carrying impulses and sending messages. What keeps them from sending impulses everywhere and acting like an

unruly mob? Is there a source of order in this complex system, a central place where information is processed, decisions are made, and order is enforced? Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System CNS BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD Brain receives messages from spinal cord Brain sends messages through spinal cord Lesson Overview

The Central Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Where does processing of information occur in the nervous system? Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Where does processing of information occur in the nervous system? Each of the major areas of the brainthe cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stemis responsible for processing and relaying information. The spinal cord is the main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body.

Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord The control point of the central nervous system is the brain. Information processing is the brains main task.

The brain is constantly changed by its interactions with the environment. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord Sensory experience changes many of the patterns of neuron connections in the

brain, and stem cells in the brain produce new neurons throughout life. Many of these new cells originate in regions associated with learning and memory. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System The Brain and Spinal Cord

A large cluster of neurons and other cells make up the spinal cord. The spinal cord is the main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body. It carries thousands of signals at once between the central and peripheral nervous systems. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System

The Brain and Spinal Cord Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord, connecting the brain to different parts of the body. Certain kinds of information, including many reflexes, are processed directly in the spinal cord. A reflex is a quick,

automatic response to a stimulus. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Hemispheres A deep groove divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres. The hemispheres are connected by a

band of tissue called the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere deals mainly with the opposite side of the body. Sensations from the left side of the body go to the right hemisphere of the cerebrum, and those from the right side go to the left hemisphere. Commands to move muscles are generated in the same way. Lesson Overview

The Central Nervous System Which side are you? http://www.mathpower.com/brain.htm http://braintest.sommer-sommer.com/en/ http://personality-testing.info/tests/OHBDS/ Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Thalamus and Hypothalamus The thalamus and hypothalamus are found

between the brain stem and the cerebrum. The thalamus receives messages from sensory receptors throughout the body and then relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System

Thalamus and Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is the control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature HOMEOSTASIS. The hypothalamus also helps to coordinate the nervous and endocrine systems.

Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Cerebrum The largest region of the human brain is the cerebrum. The cerebrum is responsible for the

voluntary, or conscious, activities of the body. It is also the site of intelligence, learning, and judgment. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Cerebellum

The second largest region of the brain is the cerebellum. Information about muscle and joint position, as well as other sensory inputs, is sent to the cerebellum. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System

Cerebellum Although the commands to move muscles come from the cerebrum, sensory information allows the cerebellum to coordinate and balance the actions of these muscles. When you begin any new activity involving muscle coordination, it is the cerebellum that learns the movements and

coordinates the actions of individual muscles when the movement is repeated. Lesson Overview Brain Stem The Central Nervous System The brain stem connects the brain and spinal cord.

The brain stem includes three regions the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. Each of these regions regulates the flow of information between the brain and the rest of the body. Involuntary functions such as regulation of blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing are controlled by the brain stem. The brain stem keeps the body functioning even when you have lost consciousness due to sleep or injury.

Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System So what makes human brain unique? Study done using musical notes AAAB vs AAAA http://www.brainfacts.org/aboutneuroscience/ask-an-expert/articles/2014/

how-does-the-human-brain-differ-fromthat-of-other-primates/ Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Addiction and the Brain How do drugs change the brain and lead to addiction? Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Addiction and the Brain How do drugs change the brain and lead to addiction? Addictive drugs act on dopamine synapses in a number of ways.

Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Addiction and the Brain When we engage in an activity that brings us pleasure, neurons in the hypothalamus and the limbic system release dopamine. Dopamine molecules stimulate other neurons across these synapses, producing the sensation of pleasure

and a feeling of well-being. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Addiction and the Brain Methamphetamine releases a flood of dopamine, producing an instant high. Cocaine keeps dopamine in the synaptic region longer, intensifying pleasure and suppressing pain.

Drugs made from opium poppies, like heroin, stimulate receptors elsewhere in the brain that lead to dopamine release. Nicotine and alcohol also cause increased release of dopamine. Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System

Dopamine Lesson Overview The Central Nervous System Mouse Party http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/mouse/

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