# Computer Applications COSC 1401 William Miller - Instructor

Computer Applications COSC 1401 William Miller - Instructor Computer Applications Logging into Computer first 20 digits of you Email address password - 2010fall William Miller - Instructor Computer Applications Username user

password - user123 SimNet https://tccd.simnetonline.com/Students William Miller - Instructor Chapter 1 Computers and Digital Basics 1 Computer History

1 ABACUS 4th Century B.C. The abacus, a simple counting aid, may have been invented in Babylonia (now Iraq) in the fourth century B.C. This device allows users to make computations using a system of sliding beads arranged on a rack.

1 BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) In 1642, the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal invented a calculating device that would come to be called the "Adding Machine". 1

BLAISE PASCAL (1623 - 1662) Originally called a "numerical wheel calculator" or the "Pascaline", Pascal's invention utilized a train of 8 moveable dials or cogs to add sums of up to 8 figures long. As one dial turned 10 notches - or a complete revolution - it mechanically turned the next dial. Pascal's mechanical Adding Machine automated the process of calculation. Although slow by modern standards, this machine did provide a fair degree of accuracy and speed.

1 CHARLES BABBAGE (1791 - 1871) Born in 1791, Charles Babbage was an English mathematician and professor. In 1822, he persuaded the British government to finance his design to build a machine that would calculate tables for logarithms. With Charles Babbage's creation of the "Analytical Engine", (1833) computers took the form of a

general purpose machine. 1 HOWARD AIKEN (1900 - 1973) Aiken thought he could create a modern and functioning model of Babbage's Analytical Engine. He succeeded in securing a grant of 1 million dollars for his proposed Automatic Sequence Calculator; the Mark I for short. From IBM.

In 1944, the Mark I was "switched" on. Aiken's colossal machine spanned 51 feet in length and 8 feet in height. 500 meters of wiring were required to connect each component. 1 HOWARD AIKEN (1900 - 1973) The Mark I did transform Babbage's dream into reality and did succeed in putting IBM's name on the forefront of

the burgeoning computer industry. From 1944 on, modern computers would forever be associated with digital intelligence. 1 ENIAC 1946 Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer Under the leadership of J. Presper Eckert (1919 1995) and John W. Mauchly (1907 - 1980) the team produced a machine that computed at speeds 1,000

times faster than the Mark I was capable of only 2 years earlier. Using 18,00-19,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors and 5 million soldered joints this massive instrument required the output of a small power station to operate it. 1 ENIAC 1946 It could do nuclear physics calculations (in two

hours) which it would have taken 100 engineers a year to do by hand. The system's program could be changed by rewiring a panel. 1 ENIAC 1946 1

TRANSISTOR 1948 In the laboratories of Bell Telephone, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley discovered the "transfer resistor"; later labelled the transistor. Advantages: increased reliability 1/13 size of vacuum tubes consumed 1/20 of the electricity of vacuum tubes were a fraction of the cost

1 TRANSISTOR 1948 This tiny device had a huge impact on and extensive implications for modern computers. In 1956, the transistor won its creators the Noble Peace Prize for their invention. 1 ALTAIR

1975 The invention of the transistor made computers smaller, cheaper and more reliable. Therefore, the stage was set for the entrance of the computer into the domestic realm. In 1975, the age of personal computers commenced. Under the leadership of Ed Roberts the Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Company (MITS) wanted to design a computer 'kit' for the home hobbyist. 1

ALTAIR 1975 Based on the Intel 8080 processor, capable of controlling 64 kilobyes of memory, the MITS Altair - as the invention was later called - was debuted on the cover of the January edition of Popular Electronics magazine. Presenting the Altair as an unassembled kit kept costs to a minimum. Therefore, the company was able to offer this model for only \$395. Supply could not keep up with demand.

1 ALTAIR 1975 ALTAIR FACTS: No Keyboard No Video Display No Storage Device 1

IBM (PC) 1981 On August 12, 1981 IBM announced its own personal computer. Using the 16 bit Intel 8088 microprocessor, allowed for increased speed and huge amounts of memory. Unlike the Altair that was sold as unassembled computer kits, IBM sold its "ready-made" machine through retailers and by qualified salespeople. 1

IBM (PC) 1981 To satisfy consumer appetites and to increase usability, IBM gave prototype IBM PCs to a number of major software companies. For the first time, small companies and individuals who never would have imagined owning a "personal" computer were now opened to the computer world.

1 MACINTOSH (1984) IBM's major competitor was a company lead by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs and Ronald Wayne; the Apple Computer Inc. The "Lisa" was the result of their competitive thrust. This system differed from its predecessors in its use of a "mouse" - then a quite foreign computer instrument - in lieu of manually typing commands. However, the outrageous price of the Lisa kept it out of reach for many computer buyers.

*Ronald Wayne gave up his share of the new company for a total of \$2,300. 1 MACINTOSH (1984) Apple's brainchild was the Macintosh. Like the Lisa, the Macintosh too would make use of a graphical user interface. Introduced in January 1984 it was an immediate success. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) made the

system easy to use. 1 MACINTOSH (1984) The Apple Macintosh debuts in 1984. It features a simple, graphical interface, uses the 8-MHz, 32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, and has a built-in 9-inch B/W screen.

1 The Digital Revolution Digital revolution - an ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology, such as computers and the Internet Revolves around a constellation of technologies, including digital electronics, computers, communications networks, the Web, and digitization Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 25

1 The Digital Revolution Digital electronics use electronic circuits to represent data Digital electronic devices include computers, portable media players such as iPods, digital cameras and camcorders, cell phones, radios and televisions, GPSs, DVD and CD players, e-book readers, digital voice recorders, and handheld gaming consoles Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 26

1 The Digital Revolution Computer Ownership in the USA Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 27 1 The Digital Revolution What Caused the sudden upswing in computer ownership? The second phase of the digital revolution materialized when the Internet was opened to public use E-mail

Bulletin boards Chat groups Blogs Online social networks Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 28 1 The Digital Revolution Some Terms:

A computer network is a group of computers linked by wired or wireless technology to share data and resources The Web is a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds that can be accessed over the Internet Cyberspace is a term that refers to entities that exist largely within computer networks Digitization is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

29 1 Convergence Technological convergence -process by which several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product Convergence tends to offer enhanced functionality and convenience Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

30 1 Digital Society Digital technologies and communications networks make it easy to cross cultural and geographic boundaries Anonymous Internet sites, such as Freenet, and anonymizer tools that cloak a persons identity, even make it possible to exercise freedom of speech in situations where reprisals might repress it Citizens of free societies have an expectation of privacy Intellectual property refers to the ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or representations

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 31 1 Digital Society Digital technology is an important factor in global and national economies, in addition to affecting the economic status of individuals Globalization - the worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-border commerce increases and as money flows more freely among countries

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 32 1 Digital Society Individuals are affected by the digital divide, a term that refers to the gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not Digital technology permeates the very core of modern life Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

33 1 SECTION Digital Devices Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics B

34 1 Computer Basics A computer is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 35

1 Computer Basics Input - whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system Output the result produced by a computer Data - refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas Computers manipulate data in many ways, and this manipulation is called processing Central Processing Unit (CPU) Microprocessor Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

36 1 Computer Basics Memory - area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output Storage - area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing File - named collection of data that exists on a storage medium Computer program - series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks.

Software Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 37 1 Computer Basics Stored program - a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computers memory Allows you to switch between tasks Distinguishes a computer from other simpler devices

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 38 1 Computer Basics Application software - set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task System software - helps the computer system monitor itself in order to function efficiently Operating system (OS) Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

39 1 Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers A personal computer is a microprocessor-based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 40 1 Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers The term workstation has two meanings: An ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network

A powerful desktop computer used for high-performance tasks Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 41 1 Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers

Videogame console: not generally referred to as personal computers because of their history as dedicated game devices. Nintendos Wii Sonys PlayStation Microsofts Xbox Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 42 1

Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers Server - serves other computers on a network (such as the Internet or a home network) by supplying them with data. Mainframe computer (or simply a mainframe) is a large and expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users Supercomputer - at the time of construction, one of the fastest computers in the world

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 43 1 PDAs, Smart Phones, and Portable Media Players PDA (personal digital assistant) - pocket-sized digital appointment book with a small qwerty keyboard or a touchsensitive screen, designed to run on batteries and be used while holding it.

Palm Pilot Handheld computer - essentially a PDA enhanced with features such as removable storage, e-mail, Web access, voice communications, built-in camera, and GPS Apple iPhone, Palm Treo, RIM Blackberry Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 44 1

PDAs, Smart Phones, and Portable Media Players Smart phone - in addition to voice communication, includes features such as full qwerty keypad, text messaging, e-mail, Web access, removable storage, camera, FM radio, digital music player, and software options for games, financial management, personal organizer, GPS, and maps Portable media players - device that their main strength is playing music, showing videos, and storing photos such as iPods.

Chapter Computers and Digital_____ Basics ______ 1: ________ ___ ______ 45

1 Microcontrollers Microcontroller - a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls Microcontrollers - can be embedded in all sorts of everyday devices Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 46 1

SECTION C Digital Data Representation Data Representation Basics Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures Quantifying Bits and Bytes

Circuits and Chips Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 47 1 Data Representation Data representation refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted Digital devices work with distinct and separate data Analog devices work with continuous data

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 48 1 Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures Numeric data Binary number system Character data Composed of

letters, symbols and numerals that are not involved in arithmetic operations. Digital devices employ several types of coeds that represent character data: ASCII, Extended ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode Digitizing - process of converting analog data into digital format Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

49 1 Data Representation Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 50 1 Quantifying Bits and Bytes Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

51 1 Circuits and Chips Integrated circuit (computer chip) - super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 52 1 Circuits and Chips

System board The main circuit board of a digital device. This is where most of the electronics are typically. Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 53 1

SECTION Digital Processing D Programs and Instruction Sets Processor Logic Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 54

1 Programs and Instruction Sets Computer programmers - create programs that control digital devices. These programs are usually written in a highlevel programming language Source code - The human-readable version of a program created in a high-level language by a programmer. Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 55 1 Programs and Instruction Sets

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 56 1 Programs and Instruction Sets Instruction set - a collection of preprogrammed activities a microprocessor is hardwired to perform Each instruction has a corresponding sequence of 0s and 1s The end product is called machine code 1s and 0s

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 57 1 Programs and Instruction Sets Op code (short for operation code) - command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump Operand - specifies the data, or the address of the data, for the operation In the following instruction, the op code means add and the operand is 1, so the instruction means Add 1

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 58 1 Programs and Instruction Sets Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 59 1 Processor Logic ALU (arithmetic logic unit) - the part of the microprocessor

that performs arithmetic operations Registers - what the ALU uses to hold the data that is being processed Control unit - The microprocessors control unit fetches each instruction, just as you get each ingredient out of a cupboard or the refrigerator Instruction cycle - refers to the process in which a computer executes a single instruction Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 60

1 Processor Logic Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 61 1 Processor Logic Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 62

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 63 1 Authentication Protocols Authentication Protocol - method that confirms a persons identity using something the person knows, something the person possesses, or something the person is A person can also be identified by biometrics, such as a fingerprint, facial features (photo), or retinal pattern A user ID is a series of charactersletters and possibly

numbers or special symbolsthat becomes a persons unique identifier A password is a series of characters that verifies a user ID and guarantees that you are the person you claim to be Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 64 1 Authentication Protocols Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

65 1 Password Hacks Identity theft - When someone gains unauthorized access to your personal data and uses it illegally Hackers employ a wide range of ways to steal passwords Dictionary attack - helps hackers guess your password by stepping through a dictionary containing thousands of the most commonly used passwords Brute force attack - uses password-cracking software, but its range is much more extensive than the dictionary attack

Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 66 1 Password Hacks Sniffing - If hackers cant guess a password, they can use another technique called sniffing, which intercepts information sent out over computer networks Phishing - attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic

communication. Keylogger - software that secretly records a users keystrokes and sends the information to a hacker Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 67 1 Password Security Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

68 1 Password Security Strive to select a unique user ID that you can use for more than one site Maintain two or three tiers of passwords Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 69 1 Password Security

Password manager - stores user IDs with their corresponding passwords and automatically fills in login forms Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics 70 Chapter 1 Complete Computers and Digital Basics

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