Overview of ARIES ACT-1 Study Farrokh Najmabadi Professor
Overview of ARIES ACT-1 Study Farrokh Najmabadi Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Director, Center for Energy Research UC San Diego and the ARIES Team Japan-US Workshop on Fusion Power Plants and Related Advanced Technologies with participations from China & Korea February 26-28, 2013 ARIES Program Participants Systems code: UC San Diego, PPPL Plasma Physics: PPPL , GA, LLNL Fusion Core Design & Analysis: UC San Diego, FNT Consulting Nuclear Analysis: UW-Madison Plasma Facing Components (Design & Analysis): UC San Diego, UWMadison Plasma Facing Components (experiments): Georgia Tech Design Integration: UC San Diego, Boeing Safety: INEL Contact to Material Community: ORNL Goals of ARIES ACT Study Over Over aa decade decade since since last last tokamak tokamak study study :: ARIES-1 ARIES-1 (1990) (1990) through ARIES-AT(2000). ARIES-AT(2000). through Substantial progress progress in in understanding understanding in in many many areas. areas. Substantial New issues issues have have emerged: emerged: e.g., e.g., edge edge plasma plasma physics, physics, PMI, PMI, New PFCs, and and off-normal off-normal events. events. PFCs, What would would be be the the maximum maximum fluxes fluxes that that can can be be handled
handled by by ininoo What vessel components components in in aa power power plant? plant? vessel What level level of of off-normal off-normal events events are are acceptable acceptable in in aa commercial commercial oo What power plant? plant? power Evolving Evolving needs needs in in the the ITER ITER and and FNSF/Demo FNSF/Demo era: era: Risk/benefit analysis analysis among among extrapolation extrapolation and and attractiveness. attractiveness. Risk/benefit Detailed component component designs designs is is necessary necessary to to understand understand R&D R&D Detailed requirements. requirements. Frame the parameter space for attractive power plants by considering the four corners of parameter space Physics Extrapolation Higher power density Higher density Lower current-drive power Lower power density Lower density Higher CD power ACT-1 Reversed-shear
Reversed-shear ( (NN=0.04-0.06)) =0.04-0.06)) DCLL DCLL blanket blanket ACT-2 Reversed-shear Reversed-shear (NN=0.04-0.06)) =0.04-0.06)) ( SiC blanket blanket SiC De as e r c in / gP R 11stst Stability Stability (no-wall (no-wall limit) limit) DCLL DCLL blanket blanket Lower thermal efficiency Higher Fusion/plasma power Higher P/R Metallic first wall/blanket ARIES-RS/AT SSTR-2 EU Model-D 11stst Stability Stability (no-wall (no-wall limit) limit) SiC SiC blanket blanket Engineering performance (efficiency) ARIES-1 SSTR Higher thermal efficiency Lower fusion/plasma power Lower P/R Composite first wall/blanket
Status of the ARIES ACT Study Project Project Goals: Goals: Detailed design design of of advanced advanced physics, physics, SiC SiC blanket blanketACT-1 ACT-1 Detailed (ARIES-AT update). update). (ARIES-AT Detailed design design of ofACT-2 ACT-2 (conservative (conservative physics, physics, DCLL DCLL Detailed blanket). blanket). System-level definitions definitions for forACT-3 ACT-3 &&ACT-4. ACT-4. System-level ACT-1 ACT-1 research research is is completed. completed. First design design iteration iteration was was completed completed for for aa 5.5 5.5 m m Device. Device. First Updated design design point point at at RR == 6.25 6.25 m m (detailed (detailed design design on-going) on-going) Updated Final report report to to be be published published as as aa special special issue issue of
of Fusion Fusion Science Science Final Technology &&Technology ACT-2 ACT-2 Research Research will will be be completed completed by by December December 2013. 2013. ARIES-ACT1 (ARIES-AT update) Advance tokamak mode Blanket: SiC structure & LiPb Coolant/breeder (to achieve a high efficiency) ARIES Systems Code a new approach to finding operating points Systems Systems codes codes find find aa single single operating point point through through aa operating minimization of of aa figure figure of of minimization merit with with certain certain constraints constraints merit Very difficult difficult to to see see sensitivity sensitivity to to Very assumptions. assumptions. Our Our new new approach approach to to systems systems analysis is is based based on on surveying surveying analysis the design design space space and and finding
finding aa the large number number of of viable viable large operating points. points. operating AAGUI GUI is is developed developed to to visualize the the data. data. ItIt can can visualize impose additional additional constraints constraints impose to explore explore sensitivities sensitivities to Example: Data base of operating points with fbs 0.90, 0.85 fGW 1.0, H98 1.75 Impact of the Divertor Heat load Divertor Divertor design design can can handle handle >> 10 10 MW/m22 peak peak load. load. MW/m UEDGE UEDGE simulations simulations (LLNL) (LLNL) showed showed detached divertor divertor solution solution to to reach reach high high detached radiated powers powers in in the the divertor divertor slot slot and and radiated low peak peak heat heat flux flux on on the the divertor
divertor aa low (~5MW/m22 peak). peak). (~5MW/m Leads to toARIES-AT-size ARIES-AT-size device device at at Leads R=5.5m. R=5.5m. Control && sustaining sustaining aa detached detached divertor? divertor? Control Using Using Fundamenski Fundamenski SOL SOL estimates estimates and and 90% radiation radiation in in SOL+divertor SOL+divertor leads leads to to 90% 6.25-m device device with with only only 44 mills mills cost cost aa 6.25-m penalty (current (current reference reference point). point). penalty Device size size isis set set by by the the divertor divertor heat heat flux flux Device The new systems approach underlines robustness of the design point to physics achievements Major radius (m) 6.25 6.25 Aspect ratio 4 4 Toroidal field on axis (T)
6 7 Peak field on the coil (T) 11.8 12.9 5.75% 4.75% Plasma current (MA) 10.9 10.9 H98 1.65 1.58 Fusion power (MW) 1813 1817 Auxiliary power 160 169 Average n wall load (MW/m2) 2.5 2.3 13.5 11.0 67 68.9 Normalized beta* Peak divertor heat flux (MW/m2) Cost of Electricity (mills/kWh) * Includes fast a contribution of ~ 1% The new systems approach underlines robustness of the design point to physics achievements Major radius (m) 6.25 6.25 Aspect ratio 4
4 Toroidal field on axis (T) 6 7 Peak field on the coil (T) 11.8 12.9 5.75% 4.75% Plasma current (MA) 10.9 10.9 H98 1.65 1.58 Fusion power (MW) 1813 1817 Auxiliary power 160 169 Average n wall load (MW/m2) 2.5 2.5 13.5 13.5 67 69 Normalized beta* Peak divertor heat flux (MW/m2) Cost of Electricity (mills/kWh) * Includes fast a contribution of ~ 1% Detailed Physics analysis has been performed using the latest tools New physics physics modeling modeling New Energy transport transport assessment:
assessment: what what isis Energy required and and model model predictions predictions required Pedestal treatment treatment Pedestal Time-dependent free free boundary boundary Time-dependent simulations of of formation formation and and simulations operating point point operating Edge plasma plasma simulation simulation (consistent (consistent Edge divertor/edge, detachment, detachment, etc) etc) divertor/edge, Divertor/FW heat heat loading loading from from Divertor/FW experimental tokamaks tokamaks for for transient transient experimental and off-normal* off-normal* and Disruption simulations* simulations* Disruption Fast particle particle MHD MHD Fast * Discussed in the paper by M. Tillack, C. Kessel Overview of engineering design: 1. High-hest flux components* Design Design of of first first wall wall and and divertor divertor options options High-performance He-cooled He-cooled W-alloy W-alloy High-performance
divertor, external external transition transition to to steel steel divertor, Robust FW FW concept concept (embedded (embedded W W pins) pins) Robust Analysis Analysis of of first first wall wall and and divertor divertor options options Birth-to-death modeling modeling Birth-to-death Yield, creep, creep, fracture fracture mechanics mechanics Yield, Failure modes modes Failure Helium Helium heat heat transfer transfer experiments experiments ELM ELM and and disruption disruption loading loading responses responses Thermal, mechanical, mechanical, EM EM && Thermal, ferromagnetic ferromagnetic * Discussed in paper by M. Tillack and J. Blanchard, Overview of engineering design*: 2. Fusion Core Features Features similar similar to toARIES-AT ARIES-AT
PbLi self-cooled self-cooled SiC/SiC SiC/SiC breeding breeding PbLi blanket with with simple simple double-pipe double-pipe blanket construction construction Brayton cycle cycle with with h~58% h~58% Brayton Many Many new new features features and and improvements improvements He-cooled ferritic ferritic steel steel structural structural He-cooled ring/shield ring/shield Detailed flow flow paths paths and and manifolding manifolding for for Detailed PbLi to to reduce reduce 3D 3D MHD MHD effects* effects* PbLi Elimination of of water water from from the the vacuum vacuum Elimination vessel, separation separation of of vessel vessel and and shield shield vessel, Identification of of new new material material for
for the the Identification vacuum vessel vessel vacuum * Discussed in the paper by M. Tillack, this session Detailed safety analysis has highlighted impact of tritium absorption and transport Detailed Detailed safety safety modeling modeling of ofARIES-AT ARIES-AT (Petti (Petti et et al) al) and and ARIES-CS (Merrill (Merrill et et al, al, FS&T, FS&T, 54, 54, 2008 2008 )) have have shown shown aa ARIES-CS paradigm shift shift in in safety safety issues: issues: paradigm Use of of low-activation low-activation material material and and care care design design has has limited limited Use temperature excursions excursions and and mobilization mobilization of of radioactivity radioactivity temperature during accidents. accidents. Rather Rather off-site off-site dose dose isis dominated dominated by by during tritium. tritium. ForARIES-CS ARIES-CS worst-case worst-case accident, accident, tritium
tritium release release dose dose isis For 8.5 mSv mSv (no-evacuation (no-evacuation limit limit isis 10 10 mSV) mSV) 8.5 Major Major implications implications for for material material and and component component R&D: R&D: Need to to minimize minimize tritium tritium inventory inventory (control (control of of breeding, breeding, Need absorption and and inventory inventory in in different different material) material) absorption Design implications: implications: material material choices, choices, in-vessel in-vessel components, components, Design vacuum vessel, vessel, etc. etc. vacuum Revisiting ARIES-AT vacuum vessel AREIS-AT AREIS-AT had had aa thick thick vacuum vacuum vessel vessel (40 (40 cm cm thick) with with WC WC and and water water to to help help in in shielding. shielding. thick)
(adoption of of ITER ITER vacuum vacuum vessel). vessel). (adoption Expensive and and massive massive vacuum vacuum vessel. vessel. Expensive ITER Components Components are are hung hung from from the the vacuum vacuum vessel. vessel. ITER ARIES sectors sectors are are self self supporting supporting (different (different loads). loads). ARIES ARIES-AT ARIES-AT vacuum vacuum vessel vessel operated operated at at 50 50ooC C material? material? Tritium absorption? absorption? Tritium Tritium transfer transfer to to water? water? Tritium Vacuum Vacuum vessel vessel temperature temperature exceeded exceeded 100 100ooC C during an an accident accident after after aa few few hours hours (steam!) (steam!) during New Vacuum Vessel Design Contains Contains no no water water
Can run run at at high high temperature: temperature: 300300 Can 500ooC. C. (350 (350 ooCC operating operating 500 temperature to to minimize minimize tritium tritium temperature inventory) inventory) Cooled Cooled by by He He flowing flowing between between ribs. ribs. Tritium diffused diffused through through the the inner inner Tritium wall isis recovered recovered from from He He coolant coolant wall (Tritium diffusion diffusion to to the the cryostat cryostat and/ and/ (Tritium or building building should should be be much much smaller. smaller. or Made Made of of low-activation low-activation 3Cr-3WV 3Cr-3WV baintic steel steel (no (no need need for for post-weld post-weld baintic heat treatment treatment).). heat In summary
ARIES-ACT ARIES-ACT study study is is re-examining re-examining the the tokamak tokamak power power plant plant space to to understand understand risk risk and and trade-offs trade-offs of of higher higher physics physics and and space engineering performance performance with with special special emphais emphais on on PMI/PFC PMI/PFC engineering and off-normal off-normal events. events. and ARIES-ACT1 (updated (updatedARIES-AT) ARIES-AT) isis near near completion. completion. ARIES-ACT1 Detailed physics physics analysis analysis with with modern modern computational computational tools tools are are Detailed used. Many Many new new physics physics issues issues are are included. included. used. The new new system system approach approach indicate indicate aa robust robust design design window window for for this
this The class of of power power plants. plants. class Many engineering engineering imporvements: imporvements: He-cooled He-cooled ferritic ferritic steel steel structural structural Many ring/shield, Detailed Detailed flow flow paths paths and and manifolding manifolding to to reduce reduce 3D 3D MHD MHD ring/shield, effects, Identification Identification of of new new material material for for the the vacuum vacuum vessel vessel effects, In-elastic analysis analysis of of component component including including Birth-to-death Birth-to-death modeling modeling In-elastic and fracture fracture mechanics mechanics indicate indicate aa higher higher performance performance PFCs PFCs are are and possible. Many Many issues/properties issues/properties for for material material development development && possible. optimization are are identified. identified. optimization Thank you!
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