The Cell, Central Dogma and Human Genome Project

The Cell, Central Dogma and Human Genome Project

The Cell, Central Dogma and Human Genome Project A Eukaryotic Cell (there is nucleus)

Central Dogma Transcription and translation Fundamentals of Nucleic Acids

DNA Base Pair & Double Helix Strands come in pairs. Alternating sugarphosphate backbone A,T,G,C variability in the side groups

Nucleotide bonds are hydrogren bonds 3' ATTAGCCCAT 5' 5' TAATCGGGTA 3 the string "attagcccat" is bonded to its complement "atgggctaat".

From DNA to protein, Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes From Gene Code to Amino Acid: Codon Table I. Protein Molecular Structure

a) Protein is a polymer of amino acids. 20 Amino Acids ( Functional Groups) Peptide Bond Formation Human genome project (1990 - 2003) Goal: to determine the complete sequence of the 3 billion DNA subunits (bases), identify all human genes, and make them accessible for further

biological study. Ref: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/home.shtml http://www.ddj.com/184410424 (How Perl saved the Human Genome project?) Major Database and Data collection methods: Genbank: (www.ncbi.nih.gov)

DNA sequence: shortgun gene sequencing (molecular biology + computation) Protein sequence: ORF finder, theoretical translation, Experimental: Proteolysis +Mass spectrometry Protein structure db: (www.pdb.org) x-ray crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance(NMR) spectroscopy Protein structure modeling: http://swissmodel.expasy.org//SWISS-MODEL.html Genomewide expression data (RNA): Gene chip (microarray technology)

special gene chips: microRNA chip SNP chip Protein-protein interaction (Proteomics): 2D gel, mass spectrometry Primary Biological information databases NCBI (Natl Center Biotech Information) - GenBank

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute) - EMBL http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ NIAS, Japan (National Institute of Agrobiological systems) http://www.dna.affrc.go.jp/ (genebank, DNA and proteins) KEGG http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway.html (pathways database) ExPASy - SwissProt and TrEMBL: http://www.expasy.org/sprot

Database of annotated proteins http://swissmodel.expasy.org//SWISS-MODEL.html Database for predicting protein structure using homology modeling Prosite: http://kr.expasy.org/prosite Database of protein active sites Structure Databases: PDB (Protein Data Bank): http://www. pdb.org/

Data base of Protein tertiary structures SCOP: http://scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop CATH: http://www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/cath http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Tools and Tutorial: BLAST, Structure, PubMed, OMIM, Taxbrowser

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IEB/ (Information Engineering) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/ Significance of the Genomics Revolution data driven biology functional genomics comparative genomics

systems biology molecular medicine identification of genetic components of various maladies diagnosis/prognosis from sequence/expression gene therapy pharmacogenomics developing highly targeted drugs

predicting adverse effects or efficacy on individual basis toxicogenomics elucidating which genes are affected by various chemicals

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