Maximising water reuse in the EU Framework contract

Maximising water reuse in the EU Framework contract

Maximising water reuse in the EU Framework contract ENV.D.I/FRA/2012/0014 Presentation of studys progress to the CIS Working Group on Programmes of Measures 13 October 2014 Contents Policy objectives Policy options Impacts of policy options preliminary findings Key environmental impacts Key economic impacts Key social impacts Comparison of options Questions for discussion 2 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Future EU action should meet 3 key objectives Inadequate water pricing Insufficient abstraction controls on freshwater Reuse not seen as a component of integrated water management Unclear regulatory framework (in some MS) Stakeholders unaware of the range of benefits

OPTIMISE Achieve a higher uptake of appropriate water reuse solutions, where it proves cost effective, as a way to address water scarcity Technical barriers and scientific uncertainties Too stringent standards in some MS Lack of assurance on safety and public acceptance issues (in some MS) Fear of potential internal trade barriers for food products 3 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 ENSURE SAFETY Ensure the safety of water reuse practices AVOID TRADE ISSUES Avoid potential trade barriers on food products 2013 Bio by Deloitte Four policy options have been investigated Option 0: No policy change Option 1: Information, communication and knowledge enhancement measures Awareness raising actions, production and dissemination of information

Good practice reference document on water reuse Promotion of forthcoming ISO/CEN water reuse standards by the EU EU guidelines on how to foster water reuse through economic instruments EU guidelines on the implementation of the WFD and UWWTD Option 2: Option 1 + Amendments to existing legislation (possible targets at river basin scale) Water stressed MS to assess the contribution water reuse can make under different water stress scenarios and, if this contribution is significant, have agreed targets for reuse of reclaimed water as part of their RBMPs Option 3: Option 2 + New legislative provisions (common EU standards) Contents of risk management plans List of acceptable uses and possible use restrictions Indicative quality criteria and wastewater treatment requirements Key aspects of permitting procedure Monitoring requirements Roles and responsibilities 4 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Key environmental impacts 2013 Bio by Deloitte Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014

Environmental impacts Option 0: No policy change Increased uptake of water reuse would be mostly driven by Spain: 700 Mm3/year expected by 2018 without further policy intervention, vs approx. 500 Mm 3/year today According to AQUAREC (2006), by 2025: Potential for wastewater reuse in the EU ~ 3,222 Mm 3/y Increases expected in IT and BG and, to a lesser extent, in DE, FR, PT and EL According to national stakeholders: increased rates projected by AQUAREC model may be difficult to achieve in IT, FR and EL Increased uptake of water reuse is likely to lead to: Reduction in freshwater abstraction rates overall Increased freshwater availability Improvement of freshwater quality with regard to nutrients and salt intrusion issues in particular Potential reduction of environmental base flows in some EU regions 6 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Environmental impacts Option 1: Information, communication and knowledge enhancement measures Overall, an increased uptake of water reuse due to: Better awareness of the stakeholders concerning the benefits of water reuse Better awareness of good practices Implementation of incentivising economic instruments

Etc. Would enhance environmental impacts identified in the baseline Better management of reclaimed water quality issues due to: Promotion of forthcoming ISO standards Development of a good practice reference document Impacts will differ significantly across MS, e.g.: ES: Would reinforce the impact of similar measures already planned FR, IT and EL: May not solve the main barrier to reuse in these MS PT, CY, MT: Would support the success of national programmes on reuse 7 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Environmental impacts Option 2: Option 1 + Amendments to existing legislation (possible targets at river basin scale) Overall, a further increase of reused water volumes, especially in EU river basins where water reuse can significantly contribute to addressing water stress in a cost-effective way Impacts will differ significantly across MS, e.g.: ES: Unlikely to have a significant effect in comparison to Option 1, but will give more political weight to enforcement of existing policy measures to achieve national and regional reuse targets PT: May reinforce the impacts of existing policy measures for promoting water reuse, including a possible new water reuse target (following failure to achieve the 2013 target) 8 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014

2013 Bio by Deloitte Environmental impacts Option 3: Option 2 + New legislative provisions (common EU standards) Will mainly influence freshwater quality aspects and, to a lesser extent, on freshwater quantities Standards would reinforce the positive impacts of information/communication measures and of potential water reuse targets Environmental impacts likely to be more significant in MS having encountered difficulties in the implementation of their own standards (FR, IT and EL) for which absence of a clear legislative framework is seen as a major obstacle to water reuse (e.g. UK) 9 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Key economic impacts 2013 Bio by Deloitte Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 Economic impacts (1/2)

+: Potential positive impact / -: Potential negative impact : Potential increase of the indicator / : Potential decrease of the indicator Likely effects of the policy options at the EU level, within the next 10 years Key impact indicators Key actors affected Option 0 (baseline) Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Contribution of water reuse to reducing implementation costs of WFD (existing provisions of PoM) Public authorities + ++ +++ ++++

Implementation costs of policy measures included in the proposed options Public authorities None Costs for developing and operating water reuse projects / Price of reclaimed water Project developers/operators and users of reclaimed water (public and private actors) Contribution of water reuse to avoided costs of water scarcity and droughts All 11

Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 Impact depends very much on the specificities of each project and on the local/national context. No overall trend can be identified. + ++ +++ ++++ 2013 Bio by Deloitte Economic impacts (2/2) +: Potential positive impact / -: Potential negative impact : Potential increase of the indicator / : Potential decrease of the indicator Likely effects of the policy options at the EU level, within the next 10 years Key impact indicators Key actors affected Option 0 (baseline) Option 1

Option 2 Option 3 EU farmers and food sector No change + + +++ Contribution of water reuse to agricultural sectors economy EU farmers + ++ +++ ++++ Contribution of water reuse to tourism sectors economy EU tourism sector

+ ++ +++ +++ Contribution of water reuse to water industrys competitiveness EU water industry + ++ +++ ++++ EU enterprises (other than water sector) +/- +/- +/-

+/- EU enterprises + ++ +++ ++++ Internal market Contribution of water reuse to EU industrys competitiveness Innovation potential 12 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Key social impacts 2013 Bio by Deloitte Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG

PoM 13/10/2014 Social impacts +: Potential positive impact / -: Potential negative impact : Potential increase of the indicator / : Potential decrease of the indicator Likely effects of the policy options at the EU level, within the next 10 years Key impact indicators Key actors affected Option 0 (baseline) Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Prevention of public and occupational health risks associated with water reuse Civil society + ++

++ +++ Contribution of water reuse to creating/maintaining jobs Civil society + ++ +++ ++++ Enterprises in agricultural, tourism and water industry sectors Public acceptance of water reuse Civil society +/- + ++

+++ Governance and participation Civil society +/- + ++ +++ 14 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Comparison of options 2013 Bio by Deloitte Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 Policy options have been compared based on their effectiveness,

efficiency and coherence Comparison criteria Policy options* Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Moderate Moderate to high Moderate to high Moderate Moderate High Low Low High Efficiency in achieving the policy objectives

High High High Coherence with overarching EU objectives, strategies and priorities High High High Effectiveness in relation to the policy objectives Objective 1: Optimising the reuse of reclaimed water in the EU Objective 2: Ensuring the safety of reuse practices Objective 3: Avoiding potential internal trade barriers *Option 1: Information, communication and knowledge enhancement measures Option 2 = Option 1 + Amendments to existing legislation (targets) Option 3 = Option 2 + New legislative provisions (EU standards) 16

Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Questions for discussion Are there other key types of impacts that should be analysed? Do agree with the relative magnitude of impacts for the different options? Do you have further information to help quantify the magnitude of the impacts (e.g. if similar measures are planned/implemented in your country)? What would be the effects of the policy options in your country? Do you agree with our preliminary analysis? Do you agree with the conclusions from the comparison of policy options? 17 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 13/10/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Your contacts Lise Van Long Senior Manager 01 40 88 70 42 [email protected] Shailendra Mudgal Partner

01 55 61 61 43 [email protected] Deloitte fait rfrence un ou plusieurs cabinets membres de Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, socit de droit anglais ( private company limited by guarantee ), et son rseau de cabinets membres constitus en entits indpendantes et juridiquement distinctes. Pour en savoir plus sur la structure lgale de Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited et de ses cabinets membres, consulter www.deloitte.com/about. Deloitte fournit des services professionnels dans les domaines de laudit, de la fiscalit, du consulting et du financial advisory ses clients des secteurs public et priv, quel que soit leur domaine dactivit. Fort dun rseau de firmes membres dans plus de 150 pays, Deloitte allie des comptences de niveau international un service de grande qualit afin daider ses clients rpondre leurs enjeux les plus complexes. Nos 1930 00 professionnels sont anims par un mme objectif, faire de Deloitte la rfrence en matire dexcellence de service. En France, Deloitte mobilise un ensemble de comptences diversifies pour rpondre aux enjeux de ses clients, de toutes tailles et de tous secteurs des grandes entreprises multinationales aux microentreprises locales, en passant par les entreprises moyennes. Fort de lexpertise de ses 6 800 collaborateurs et associs, Deloitte en France est un acteur de rfrence en audit et risk services, consulting, financial advisory, juridique & fiscal et expertise comptable, dans le cadre dune offre pluridisciplinaire et de principes daction en phase avec les exigences de notre environnement. 2013 Bio by Deloitte. Member of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited 2013 Bio by Deloitte Scope Our study focuses on: Reuse of urban wastewater that is treated after collection and has been subject to secondary treatment (at least) Reuse of industrial wastewater for external purposes For various types of applications, e.g.: agricultural uses urban uses industrial uses environmental uses recreational uses drinking water production Not covered by this study: reuse of rainwater or greywater

19 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 25/03/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte 3 Most recent data from Eurostat: ES (2008): 525 Mm What is the problem? CY (2009): 11 Mm3 BG (2009): 6 Mm3 ES (2009): 4 Mm3 MT (2009): 1 Mm3 2025 Potential for wastewater reuse ~ 3,222 Mm3/y by 2025 (probably a low end estimate) In 2006 ~ 964 Mm3/y were reused accounting for only 2.4% of the total volume of

treated effluents produced Annual EU freshwater withdrawals: 237,660 Mm3/y in 2011 Water reuse potential estimated for 2025 would represent ~ 1.4% of this Source: AQUAREC project, 2006 20 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 25/03/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte Trends in some key MS SPAIN Legally-binding standards adopted in 2007 have played a crucial role in promoting and improving water reuse practices (Source: World Water, 2011). A National Water Reuse Plan has been adopted. Target of 1,200 Mm 3/y reclaimed water by 2018. ITALY: In several regions, legally-binding standards going beyond the national ones (adopted in 2003) have been imposed, and this has limited the attractiveness of water reuse projects. Main issues reported: Limit values relatively restrictive and costly to reach Refurbishment of WWTPs is expensive Proves difficult to meet the continuously changing requirements of industrial end users Little flexibility with regard to the choice of treatment technologies FRANCE: Very few new projects since 2006, when work started on the development on new standards. Main barriers reported: quite restrictive national standards (2010) and uncertainties related to their

constant evolution (revision foreseen). 21 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 25/03/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte What are the main barriers to water reuse? Poor implementation of WFD (cost recovery, integration, programme of measures, permits, etc.) Too vague reuse provisions in UWWTD 22 Study on maximising water reuse in the EU Presentation at CIS WG PoM 25/03/2014 2013 Bio by Deloitte

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