Chapter 4: Project Initiation Text Books: Information Technology
Chapter 4: Project Initiation Text Books: Information Technology Project Management, (chapter#4) Methods of IT Project Management, (chapter#4) 1 Objectives Learn the tools and techniques of project selection, including: 1. The strategic planning process for the organization and IT department 2. Quantitative methods, including the following: 1. Return on investment (ROI) 2. Net present value (NPV)
3. Internal rate of return (IRR) 4. Payback analysis 3. Qualitative methods 4. The weighted scoring model (WSM) 5. Project charter 6. Stakeholder assessment matrix 2 Project Initiation Before a project manager begins working on a project, he or she needs to understand how and why the organization decided to spend valuable resourcesmoney and time-on the project. You will understand the project management initiation process when you can
3 tools and techniques of project selection 1.The strategic planning 4 Strategic Planning (determining long-term business objectives) The first step before initiating projects is to look at the big picture systems approach or strategic plan of an organization
Strategic planning involves determining long-term business objectives (long-term?) IT projects should support strategic and financial business objectives 5 Strategic Planning (determining long-term business objectives)
The main goal of any project should be to deliver some form of business value: higher market share, new product or market, better customer support, higher productivity, lower operating costs, etc. All of these are typically defined in the companys strategic plan as goals and objectives. Listed next to each goal or objective is a list of strategies which will fulfill the objective 6 Projects authorization
Why are projects authorized? Internal business needs External influences Projects are initiated as a result of Market Demand Business Need Customer Request Technological Advance Legal Requirement Social Need 7 What Potential Projects Should be Selected by a Company? What to select? How to select?
Organizations should follow a documented consistent planning process for selecting IT projects Step # 1: Create a Strategic Plan -develop an IT strategic plan in support of the organizations overall strategic plan. Step # 2: Analyze the area perform- a business area analysis Step # 3: Identify all relevant projects- define all potential projects, build the business case for those projects. Step # 4: Carefully select projects- select the most appropriate and doable project, and assign resources for identified projects. 8 Methods for Selecting Projects
In every organization, there are always more projects than available time and resources to implement them Very important to follow a repeatable and complete process for selecting IT projects, to get the right mix (portfolio) for the organization 1. 2. 3. 4. Business Value Technology
Cost/Benefit questions Risk Business case a document composed of a set of project characteristics (costs, benefits, risk, etc.) that aid organization decision makers in deciding what projects to work on Four Key Issues Needing Answers for All Technology Projects: 9 Business Case Example from Text Case Study
10 SWOT analysis An often used tool to build the strategic plan is called SWOT analysis. An information gathering technique to evaluate external influences against internal capabilities Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats 11
Example: SWOT A group of four people want to start new business in film industry They create SWOT analysis as follows: Strengths: We have numerous contact in the film industry Two of us have strong sales and interpersonal skills Two has strong technical skills and familiar with SW tools We all have impressive samples of completed projects Weakness No accounting/financial experience No clear marketing strategy for product and services
12 Example (cont.) Little money to invest in new projects No company website and limited use of technology Opportunities Current client has mentioned a large project Film industry continues to grow Two major conferences this year where we could promote our company Threats Other companies can provide services we provide
Customers prefer well established organization High risk in film business 13 Mind Map of a SWOT Analysis to Help Identify Potential Projects 14 Selection Tools Qualitative Models (based on SMEs knowledge + expertise) Subject matter expert judgments Sacred Cow Mandates
Quantitative Models (based on financial considerations that can be calculated) Net Present Value (NPV) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Return on Investment Payback Period 15 tools and techniques of
project selection 2.The Qualitative methods 16 Qualitative Models Subject matter expert (SME) judgments Individuals either within the company or outside the company who possess expertise or unique knowledge in a particular facet of the business either by work experience, education, or a combination of both SMEs can be used to evaluate projects with or without more complex quantitative models and categorize projects with low, medium, and high priority rankings
Sacred Cow Sacred Cow decisions are made because someone generally in upper management really wants the project to get done 17 Qualitative Models Mandates Generated from vendors, government agencies, industry sectors, or markets
18 tools and techniques of project selection 3.The Quantitative methods 19 Quantitative Models Financial considerations are often an important factor in selecting projects but not always! Four primary methods for determining the estimated financial value of projects: Net present value (NPV) analysis
Return on investment (ROI) Payback analysis Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 20 Time Value of Money A sum of money is more valuable the sooner it is received. A dollar today is worth more than the promise of a dollar tomorrow Due to: Inflation and risk Before you invest money in a project you must compare its rate of return against other opportunities (other projects) 21
Time Value of Money FV = PV(1 + i)n Where: FV = Future Value of an investment (project) PV = Present Value of that same investment i = Interest rate, discount rate or cost of capital n = Number of years Example: Invest $1000 today (PV) for 1 year(n) at an interest rate of 10% (i), the investment is worth $1000(1+.1)1 or $1210 at the end of year one What happens when you have two different investments with varying rates of return? You must find a way to put both on equal terms. 22
Time Value of Money You put both on equal terms by changing the formula slightly to evaluate all future cash flows at time zero or today PV = FV (1+i)n Example: You have a project that promises you $1000 of profit at the end of the first year with the discount rate at 10% PV = $1,000 = $909 (1+0.1)1 The project is worth only $909 today 23
Net Present Value Analysis NPV is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from an investment (project) by discounting all future costs and benefits to the present time Projects with a positive NPV should be considered if financial value is a key criterion Generally, the higher the NPV, the better 24 NPV Example :NPV is calculated using the following formula NPV = t=0n CF/ (1+i)t
t = the year of the cash flow n = the last year of the cash flow CF = the cash flow at time t i = interest rate or discount rate Where 25 NPV Example Calculations Do the Math Discounted Cash Flow Year 0 ($120,000)
($120,000) Year 1 ($40,000) / (1 + .08)1 Year 2 $25,000 / (1 + .08)2 $21,433 Year 3 $70,000 / (1 + .08)3
$55,569 Year 4 $130,000 / (1 + .08)4 $95,553 Year 5 $80,000 / (1 + .08)5 $54,448 NPV Add them up
$69,966 Project 1 ($37,037) Project 2 Year 0 ($75,000) ($75,000) Year 1 ($5,000) / (1 + .08)1
($4,630) Year 2 $70,000 / (1 + .08)2 $60,014 Year 3 $45,000 / (1 + .08)3 $35,723 Year 4 $30,000 / (1 + .08)4
$22,051 Year 5 $5,000 / (1 + .08)5 $3,403 NPV Add them up $41,561 26 Return on Investment (ROI)
Return on investment (ROI) is income divided by investment ROI = (total discounted benefits total discounted costs) / total discounted costs The higher the ROI or higher the ratio of benefits to costs, the better Many organizations have a required rate of return or minimum acceptable rate of return on investment for projects 27 ROI Example
Step 1: determine discount factor for each year. Step 2: calculate discounted benefits and costs 28 ROI Example 29 ROI Example ROI Project 1 = ($436,000 - $367,100) / $357,100 = 19% ROI Project 2 = ($335,000 - $256,000) / $256,000 = 31%
30 Payback Period The payback period is the amount of time it will take a project before the accrued benefits surpass accrued costs, or how much time an investment takes to recover its initial cost. A longer payback period generally infers a riskier project.
The longer it takes before a project begins to make money for the organization , the greater the chances that things can go wrong on the project 31 Payback Analysis The payback period is the amount of time it will take a project before the accrued benefits surpass accrued costs or how much time an investment takes to recover its initial cost track the net cash flow across each year to determine the year that net benefits overtake net costs (not discounted cash flows) Many organizations want IT projects to have a fairly short payback period (< 1 year)
32 Payback Example Same numbers as earlier examples. Table shows net cash flows Project 1 payback occurs sometime during year 4 Project 2 payback occurs sometime during year 3 33 Selecting a Portfolio of Projects
WSM 34 Weighted Scoring Model (WSM) The weighted scoring model (WSM) is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria. The first step in creating a weighted scoring model is to identify criteria important to the project selection process. The criterion used to compare projects differs
from one organization to another and may differ between types and classes of projects within the same organization 35 Weighted Scoring Model (WSM) Some possible criteria for information technology projects include: Supports key business objectives Has strong internal sponsor Has strong customer support Uses realistic level of technology Can be implemented in one year or less Provides positive NPV Has low risk in meeting scope, time, and cost goals 36
Steeps to get WSM: 1. 2. 3. 4. First identify criteria important to the project selection process Then assign weights (percentages) to each criterion so they add up to 100% Then assign scores to each criterion for each project Multiply the scores by the weights and get the total weighted scores
37 Weighted Scoring Model Example For example, you calculate the weighted score for Project 1 38 Project Charter Is the first tangible work product created in all projects, regardless of size and type
After deciding what projects to work on, it is important to formalize the project start A project charter is a document (legal) which formally authorizes the work to begin on a project and provides an overview of objectives and resource requirements 39 Project Charter Key project stakeholders should sign a project charter to acknowledge agreement on the need and intent of
the project First project artifact placed under change control. Should define Project Managers level of authority and responsibility 40 Although the format of project charters can vary tremendously, they should include at least the following basic information:
The project s title and date of authorization The project manager s name and contact information A summary schedule, including the planned start and finish dates. A summary of the project s budget or reference to budgetary documents A brief description of the project objectives, including the business need or other justification for authorizing the project. Project success criteria, including project approval requirements and who signs off on the project. A summary of the planned approach for managing the project, which should describe stakeholder needs and expectations, important assumptions, and constraints, and refer to related documents, such as a communications management plan, as available. A roles and responsibilities matrix A sign-off section for signatures of key project stakeholders A comments section in which stakeholders can provide important comments related to
the project 41 Sample Project Charter from Running Case Study 42 Kick-Off Meeting With the completion of the stakeholder analysis and the signing of the project charter, its time to schedule and conduct the kickoff meeting First step, use the stakeholder analysis to make sure to invite the right people Everyone at the start of the project hears the same
message Get agreement from everyone on Project Charter 43 Summary
Organizations need to follow a disciplined project-selection process to ensure that they are working on the correct mix of projects. IT professionals must understand the systems context in which the project they are working on exists. Project selection techniques fall into two groups: qualitative models and quantitative models. The WSM is used to compare the merits of projects based on the organization's specific priorities This information of Stakeholder Analysis will form the basis of the scope statement A project charter is the key deliverable of the initiation phase of every project, regardless of size. 44
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