How to Craft an Effective Commercial Loan Write-Up
How to Craft an Effective Commercial Loan Write-Up Presented by: Osburn & Associates, LLC 1 Author/Lecturer DAVID L. OSBURN, MBA, CCRA David Osburn is the founder of Osburn & Associates, LLC that specializes in providing seminars, webinars, and keynote speeches to bankers, CPAs, attorneys, and credit managers on topics such as Banking/Finance/Credit, Negotiation Skills, Marketing, and Management. David also functions as a Contract CFO and works with financial institutions, CPA firms, construction companies, and real estate developers. He is also an adjunct faculty member of both an accredited MBA program and the accounting department of a community college with over 29 years of teaching experience. Davids extensive professional background includes 14 years as both a Business Trainer and Contract CFO and
16 years in banking (commercial lending) including the position of Vice President & Senior Banking Officer. David has an MBA in Finance/Marketing from Utah State University and a BS degree in Finance from Brigham Young University. He is also a graduate of the ABA National Commercial Lending School held at the University of Oklahoma. David also holds the professional designation of Certified Credit and Risk Analyst (CCRA) as granted by the National Association of Credit Management (NACM). Osburn & Associates, LLC A Business Training & Contract CFO Firm David L. Osburn, MBA, CCRA Managing Member 7426 Alamo Summit Drive Las Vegas, Nevada 89129 Direct: E-Mail:
Web: (702) 655-1187 [email protected] dlosburn.com 2 How to Craft an Effective Commercial Loan Write-Up I. Introduction: The Credit Memorandum aka A. Loan Write-Up B. Loan Presentation C. Credit Report D. Credit Approval Document
E. Standard Credit Memorandum 3 II. Credit Memorandum: A. Types/ Styles: 1. Term Paper 2. Box Approach 3. Combination B. Length Can the length of the credit memorandum lower or mitigate the risk? C. Content vs. Technical Writing
4 III. Credit Memorandum: Necessary Components A. Many and Varied! B. Format: 1. Front Page: Contact and relationship information 2. The Request (Structure-Terms, Pricing, Conditions, etc.) 3. Financial Analysis: Key Ratios, Cash Flows, Collateral Assessment 4. Management Assessment 5. Risk Assessment (Mitigation of Risk) 5 IV. Financial Analysis Section of the Credit Memorandum:
Five Key Ratios A. Liquidity: Working Capital, Current Ratio, Quick (Acid Test) Ratio B. Activity: A/R, A/P, and Inventory Turnover C. Leverage: Debt/Equity Ratio D. Operating Performance: Common-Size the Income Statement E. Cash Flow: EBITDA Business Cash, Personal Cash Flow, and Global Cash Flow 6
V. The Z-Score (Bankruptcy Predictor) A. A Bankruptcy Predictor: But it is only a predictor! B. Historical Background Developed in late 1960s by NYU Professor Edward Altman, hence sometimes referred to as the Altman Z-Score C. Why the Z-Score? Key Ratio Analysis: The ratios are unique and often tell a different story about a firms financial health. At times, they even appear to contradict each other 7 V. Z-Score (Bankruptcy Predictor) Model (Continued): Combines Five Key Ratios Into A Single Score
The Z-score Formula: Here is the formula (for manufacturing firms), which is built out of the five weighted financial ratios: Z-Score = 1.2A + 1.4B + 3.3C + 0.6D + 1.0E Where: A = Working Capital/Total Assets B = Retained Earnings/Total Assets C = Earnings Before Interest & Tax/Total Assets D = Market Value of Equity/Total Liabilities E = Sales/Total Assets 8 V. Z-Score (Bankruptcy Predictor) Model (Continued):
Bankruptcy Characteristics: 0-1.80 Gray Zone: 1.81-3.00 Non-Bankruptcy Characteristics: Over 3.00
9 VI. Assessment of Companys Strategic Plan i.e. Assessing the Risk of Managements Ability to Lead and Guide the Company A. Marketing: 1. The Target Market: The focus of the companys marketing efforts! 2. The Marketing Mix: (The Four Ps of Marketing): a. Product b. Place c. Price d. Promotion (Advertising/Personal Selling) 3. Life Cycle: Birth, Growth, Maturity, Decline, Re-Birth 4. Market Continuum:
Perfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Oligopoly Pure Monopoly 10 VI. Assessment of Companys Strategic Plan i.e. Assessing the Risk
of Managements Ability to Lead and Guide the Company (Continued): B. Financing: 1. Accounting System 2. Taxes 3. Bank/ Trade Credit Relationships C. Management: 1. People and Processes 2. Succession Plan 11 VII. Examples of Credit Memorandums: A. Exhibit # 1 (Full Write-Up) B. Exhibit # 2 (Condensed Write-Up) C. Exhibit # 3 (Detailed Write-Up)
12 VIII. Using the Credit Memorandum in Oral Loan Presentations Loan Committee Dynamics: Clear, Concise, and Motivating Presentations 1. What are the Components of the Presentation? Technical versus Management 2. Length of Presentation 3. Style of Presentation 4. Motivating the Audience 13
IX. Conclusion: How to Craft an Effective Commercial Loan Write-Up A. Different Types/ Styles/ Length B. Necessary Components-The Basics! C. Financial Analysis vs. Management Analysis D. Beyond the Write-Up i.e. What are we really trying to communicate? E. Loan Presentations: Summarizing the Loan Write-Up! 14
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