Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal RELEVANCE OF CLEAN
Rajiv Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal RELEVANCE OF CLEAN ENERGIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Presented By: CHANDRASHEKAR J. K. Advisor, DST- Project, RGTU Workshop cum Round Table on Indias Response to CDM Compliance
PER CAPITA EMISSIONS OF CARBON-DI-OXIDE- 1999 Sources: Environmental Systems Research Institute. 1996, World Countries 1995. Redlands, CA:ESRI.Country names and disputed territories updated by WRI, 1999. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2001, International Energy Annual 1999. Washington, DC:DOE, Energy Information Administration. EMISSIONS (AND SINKS) OF CARBON FROM LANDUSE CHANGE- 1950-2000 Sources: Houghton, R.A.. 2003, Emissions (and Sinks) of Carbon from Land-Use Change (Estimates of national sources and sinks of carbon resulting from changes in land use, 1950 to 2000). Woods Hole Research Center.
TOTAL CARBON-DI-OXIDE EMISSIONS - 2003 Sources: World Resources Institute. 2003, Climate Analysis Indicator Tool: Indicator Framework Paper. Washington, DC: WRI. MANDATORY SHIFT TO ALTERNATE FUELS UNDER KYOTO PROTOCOL The global concern for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions leading to the Kyoto Protocol, has become effective from 16.2.2005,
has made it mandatory for all the signatories to shift 5.2% of their fuel requirements to alternative fuels by the year 2008. And further proposed to shift to alternate fuels upto 35% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. PRODUCTION OF NATURAL GAS FROM COAL THE BEST ALTERNATE FUEL The presence of large Coal deposits in the country gives us this opportunity to produce the Alternate Clean Fuel from Coal.
The present escalation in Crude Oil prices beyond $ 138/bbl (May 2008) has once again made option for use of Coal to produce Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) a Clean Alternate Fuel a very attractive proposition. The same could be used as Alternate Transportation Fuel as well as for Domestic use and also be used for generation of Power in IGCC Plants. RGTU PROJECT FOR SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS We at Rajiv Gandhi Technological University (RGTU) are
investigating the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) from Coal. This technology will Protect both existing and future power plants against fuel shortages and price shocks Allow the continued use of high efficiency combined cycle power plants. Facilitate locating power plants near load centers to minimize the need for transmission lines and improve system reliability. Minimize both fresh water use and wastewater production. Provide the opportunity to economically introduce,
reliable power generation and clean transportation and domestic fuel. RGTU PROJECT FOR SUBSTITUTE NATURAL GAS There are three pathways that have been chosen by RGTU for reaching the same goal: Gasification of Coal and Catalytic Conversion to SNG. Hydro gasification of Coal to produce SNG.
Double Gasification / Conversion of Coal to produce SNG. VIEW FROM HUBBERTS PEAK Kenneth Deffeyes, in a book called 'Beyond Oil: the View from Hubbert's Peak' has predicted that the world oil production will peak between 2004 and 2008 probably in the year 2005. Hubbert's peak is a concept that has been propounded by M.King Hubbert a geologist at Shell in 1956 showed that oil production in any
area tends to follow a bell-shaped curve, rising fast as the easiest oil is exploited then peaking and then declining as the easy oil runs out and the difficult deposits are then exploited. VIEW FROM HUBBERTS PEAK VIEW FROM HUBBERTS PEAK He calculated in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. He turned out to be right. The year 1970, brought an
end to the era of cheap oil and the world economy since 1970 has been reeling under Crude oil price crises one after the other, till recent historic Crude oil price of US$ 138 per barrel in May 2008. CRUDE OIL LIMITATIONS The BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) Report of Goldman Sachs predicts that between 2000 and 2050 China's GDP would increase by 40 times and that of India by 60 times.
The World Crude Oil output (2005) is just 83 million barrels per day. This would have to go up to 1400 million barrels per day to fulfill this demand or 50 times the present out put. CENTURY OF CLEAN ENERGIES Hence this Century is going to be a Century of Clean Coal Technologies and Alternate Clean Energies & Fuels produced from Coal or Biomass which abate GHGs in the atmosphere and reduce GHG emissions. By moving to the use of Alternate Clean Fuels made
from Coal, biomass, sewage, and municipal and agricultural wastes, Electricity from Hydrogen, Sea Bed Methane Harvesting , Methane Harvesting of Cow dung & wastes, we could reduce our dependence on energy sources like Crude Oil. Every Cow is estimated to yield Methane equivalent to 225 Lts of Petrol per year. WHY CONVERT COAL TO SNG Coal is Largest Indigenous Energy Resource in India. Natural Gas is the Most Convenient and Cleanest Consumer Fuel for Domestic, Power & Automotive Use.
Transportation and Distribution of Natural Gas by Pipeline is planned and would be economical. Natural Gas Resource in India is Limited. Natural Gas Demand is increasing Resulting in Reliance on Imports (Gas from Iran and LNG from Overseas). Natural Gas has Significantly Increased in Cost. Processes for Conversion of Coal to SNG are increasing in Competitiveness. PROCESSES TO CONVERT COAL TO SNG OR METHANE
There are at least 6 process methods for conversion of Coal to SNG or Methane. 1. Steam-Oxygen Gasification. 2. Catalytic Steam Gasification. 3. Hydrogasification. 4. Underground Steam-Oxygen Gasification. 5. Underground Hydrogasification.. 6. Pumped Carbon Mining. (PCM) ZET-New Technologies for GHG abetment There are other new technologies for abetment of GHGs
apart from the known sources like Solar, Wind, Biomass. The Nikkogen Zero Emission Technology uses High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell to produce Power from Hydrogen produced from Coal and permanently sequester the CO2 by mineral carbonation. We at RGTU are demonstrating a New Technology called Carbon Recycling Technology. This would convert the Carbon of Carbon-di-Oxide in to a use fuel molecule. The other disposal methods for sequestered CO2 would be Production of Algae, Disposal at Sea, Under Ground burial in caverns, in depleted oil and gas wells and Mineral Carbonation.
MINERAL CARBONISATION Among all the methods Mineral Carbonation is the most potential as 97-98% of CO2 on earth is in the form of mineral carbonates. There is plenty of scope as there are very large deposits of Peridotite and Serpentinite which are basic Magnesium Silicates ores. The potential is as large as more than 25 Billion Tons of CO2 per year for centuries, CO2can be sequestered and disposed safely by this method.
SEQUESTERED CO2 DISPOSAL Deep sub-sea or on-shore saline aquifers CO2 can be dissolved in huge quantities in deep saline aquifers, which can be widespread, of no value, and stable. Interesting issues are the long-term stability, safety aspects, public acceptability, and energy consumption. Chemical compounds, mainly Al, Si, Mg. based CO2 can be stored in a chemically-bound component. Studies are mainly required on the process kinetics, and public acceptability of the technology.
Others Ocean fertilization of phytoplankton in surface waters. Non-mine able coal beds, with Enhanced Coal Bed Methane production (ECBM). SEQUESTERED CO2 DISPOSAL- ESTIMATED CAPACITY Terrestrial ecosystems (forests, soils) Estimated Reservoir Capacities Gt CO2
Deep Saline Reservoirs 400-10000 Disused Oil and Gas fields 900 Unminable Coal Beds > 15
CONCLUSION It is imperative that we abate Green House Gases, sequester CO2 and still produce Clean Energy as Energy is fundamentally to the quality of our lives. Hence an abundant and uninterrupted supply of Clean Energy is key ingredient to success of modern economies in future.
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