Incidence and changing pattern of heart disease It
Incidence and changing pattern of heart disease It ranges from 0.1% to 4%. Hospital statistics - industrialized countries have shown a decrease in the incidence from 0.9% to 0.3% Cardiovascular Physiology during Pregnancy Normal pregnancy is associated with an increase of 30 to 50 percent in blood volume
Blood volume increases, starting at the sixth week and rising rapidly until mid pregnancy; the levels peak by 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy and then are either sustained until term or decrease An estrogen-mediated stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system results in sodium and water retention appears to be the mechanism underlying the blood volume increase .
Increase in cardiac output is most significant change during pregnancy. It begins to rise in first trimester and steadily rises to peak at 32 weeks by 30 to 50%. Cardiac output is normally 4.2 L/min., is 6.5 L/min. at 8-10 weeks of pregnancy and remains so till near term. Increase in cardiac output is achieved by rise in stroke volume (in early pregnancy) and Heart Rate (in latter part of pregnancy) adjusting
together Due to rise in endogenous circulating catecholamine, there is positive inotropic and chronotropic myocardial response. Later in pregnancy, the rise is related to an acceleration of heart rate (25%), since stroke volume decreases as a result of vena caval compression.
Blood Pressure remains almost to prepregnant levels except a tendency to fall during pregnancy (particularly during midtrimester) as the systemic vascular/peripheral resistance falls (due to large arteriovenous shunts at placental bed and physiologic vasodilation secondary to endothelial prostacyclin and circulating progesterone)
Simulating cardiac disease Owing to these normal changes, many healthy pregnant women have symptoms mimicking those of cardiac disease, including: fatigue, dyspnea, and light-headedness, & number of abnormal findings on physical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography Normal physiological changes of pregnancy that
mimic symptoms and signs of cardiac disease Symptoms: Tiredness, Dyspnoea, Orthopnoea, Syncope, Light-headedness Physical signs: Peripheral oedem,Hyperventilation,Distended neck veins with prominent A and V,waves,Brisk, diffuse, and displaced left ventricular impulse, Palpable right ventricular impulse,Increased S1 intensity,Persistent splitting of S2, Early ejection systolic murmurs at lower left sternal edge or pulmonary area, Cervical venous hum,
Mammary souffle Electrocardiogram: Left axis deviation,ST segment and T wave changes, Small Q, inverted P or T wave in lead III,Increased R wave amplitude in lead V2, Atrial or ventricular ectopics Chest X-ray: Straightened left upper cardiac border, Horizontal heart position, Increased lung markings
Echocardiogram: Increased left/right ventricular dimensions, Mild increase in left/right atrial size, Slightly improved left ventricular systolic function, Functional tricuspid/pulmonary insufficiency, Small pericardial effusion Management areas Areas be considered in the clinical approach to the woman with heart disease who is pregnant or considering pregnancy:
1) Risk stratification, Pre-conceptional 2) Antepartum management, 3) Peripartum management, 4) Recurrence of congenital lesion in the neonate, 5) Site of antepartum and peripartum care. Pre-conceptional counselling This is an important aspect of management or the cardiac patient planning a pregnancy.
Ideally, the obstetrician and cardiologist should work together to help the patient make an informed decision. Prevent an unwanted pregnancy and avoid the risks associated with pregnancy continuation or termination Risk assessment Poor functional status (NYHA class III or IV) or cyanosis
Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejectionfraction < 0.40) Left heart obstruction (mitral valve area <2.0 cm2, aortic valve area < 1.5 cm2, or peak left ventricular outflow tract gradient > 30 mm Hg) A cardiac event (arrhythmia, stroke, transient ischemic attack, or pulmonary edema) before pregnancy but since a prior cardiac surgical procedure.
Maternal mortality risk and cardiac disease Group Cardiac disease Associated mortality risk I Atrial septal defect* <1% Ventricular septal defect* Patent ductus arteriosus* Pulmonary/tricuspid valve disease
Corrected tetralogy of Fallot Bioprosthetic valve Mitral stenosis, NYHA Class I, II II Coarctation of aorta without valvular involvement 5% - 15% Uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot Marfans syndrome with normal aorta Mechanical prosthetic valve Mitral stenosis with atrial fibrillation or NYHA Class III, IV Aortic stenosis
Previous myocardial infarction III Pulmonary hypertensionprimary or secondary 25% - 50% Coarctation of aorta with valvular involvement Marfans syndrome with aortic involvement Peripartum cardiomyopathy NEW YORK HEART ASSOCIATION FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF CARDIAC DISEASE CLASS I
CLASS II No functional limitation of activity. No symptoms of cardiac decompensation with activity. Mild amount of functional limitation. Patients are asymptomatic at rest. Ordinary physical activity results in symptoms. CLASS III
Limitation of most physical activity. Asymptomatic at rest Minimal physical activity results in symptoms. CLASS IV Severe limitation of physical activity results in symptoms. Patients may be symptomatic at rest/heart failure at any point of pregnancy.
CLASS V If patient is on ionotropic support, ventilator, Assisted circulation or having comprised renal or pulmonary function necessitating dialysis/EMCO to maintain vital signs. Antepartum care Limiting activity is helpful in severely affected women with ventricular dysfunction,left
heart obstruction, or class III or IV symptoms. Hospital admission by mid-second trimester may be advisable for some. Problems should be identified early and treated aggressively, especially pregnancy induced hypertension, hyperthyroidism, infection, and anemia. Beta-blockers rather than digoxin should be used to control the heart rate for patients with functionally significant mitral
stenosis. Empiric therapy with beta-blockers is offered to patients with coarctation, Marfan syndrome,and ascending aortopathy for other reasons (eg, a bicuspid aortic valve). Arrhythmias should be treated if warranted Premature atrial or ventricular beats are common in normal pregnancy, and in patients with preexisting arrhythmias, Pregnancy may exacerbate their frequency and hemodynamic severity. These usually are not treated
Sustained tachyarrhythmias, such as atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation, should be treated promptly. If possible, all antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided during the first trimester, and those known to be teratogenic should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Because of their safety profiles, preferred drugs include digoxin, beta-blockers and adenosine. Anticoagulation therapy. No current strategy is equally
safe for both mother and fetus. Anticoagulation therapy Oral therapy with warfarin is effective and logistically easy. However, it can affect embryonic organ development, although some evidence shows that a dosage of 5 mg per day may not be teratogenic. Fetal intracranial bleeding is a risk throughout
pregnancy, particularly during vaginal delivery, unless warfarin is stopped before labor. Heparin in adjusted subcutaneous doses does not cross the placenta and so has no teratogenic effects. However, it may cause maternal thrombocytopenia and osteoporosis and is less effective in preventing thrombosis in patients with prosthetic valves.
More recent guidelines recommend (1) adjusted-dose heparin during the entire pregnancy or (2) adjusted-dose heparin until the 13th week of gestation, warfarin from the 14th week to the middle of the third trimester, and then restart adjusted-dose heparin. * Low-molecular-weight heparin in adjusted doses is easier to administer and has been suggested as an alternative to adjusted-dose
unfractionated heparin. At week 36 # *Discontinue warfarin *Change to UFH titrated to a therapeutic aPTT or anti-factor Xa level. At Delivery: *Restart heparin therapy 4 to 6 hr after delivery if no contraindications *Resume warfarin therapy the night after delivery if no bleeding complications
#if labor begins while the woman is receiving warfarin, anticoagulation should be reversed and caesarean delivery performed Monitoring Anticoagulation therapy With LMWH administered sc. twice daily maintain anti-Xa level between 0.7 and 1.2 U/ml 4 hours after admn. With dose adjusted UFH, the aPTT
should be at least twice control. those on warfarin, the INR goal should be 3.0(range 2.5 to 3.5) Peripartum management Cesarean section is indicated only for the following conditions: Aortic dissection Marfan syndrome with dilated aortic root Taking warfarin within 2 weeks of labor.
Preterm induction is uncommon. However, once fetal lung maturity is assured, A planned induction and delivery may be warranted for high-risk patients to ensure that appropriate staff and equipment are available. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endocarditis is
not routine. AHA guidelines do not recommend routine endocarditis prophylaxis for cesarean section delivery or for uncomplicated vaginal delivery without infection.37 However, some centers do administer endocarditis prophylaxis for vaginal delivery in women with structural heart disease, as an uncomplicated delivery cannot always be anticipated.
Positioning the patient on her left side lessens the hemodynamic fluctuations associated with contractions when the patient is supine. Forceps or vacuum extraction should be considered at the end of the second stage of labor to shorten and ease
delivery. Postpartum monitoring Because hemodynamics do not return to baseline for many days after delivery, patients at intermediate or high risk may require monitoring for at least 72 hours postpartum. Lactation should be encouraged
unless patient is in failure. Cardiac output is not compromised during lactation. Lactation is a pathway for fluid excretion and diuretic requirement may actually fall. Contraception Barrier methods unreliable.
COC contraindicated. Progesterone only pill have better side effect profile & long acting slow releasing as Mirena intrauterine system have improved efficacy. Sterilization where family completed. (Laparoscopic clip sterilization carries risk).
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