Chapter 9 Nail Structure and Growth Copyright 2012

Chapter 9 Nail Structure and Growth  Copyright 2012

Chapter 9 Nail Structure and Growth Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom. Aristotle

Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Objectives Describe the structure and composition of nails. Discuss how nails grow. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

The Nail An appendage of the skin; the horny, translucent, protective plate that protects the tips of the fingers and toes. It is part of the integumentary system. Onyx the technical term for nail Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Composition Keratin Nail porosity 15 to 25 percent water. Water affects flexibility. Oil-based conditioner reduces water loss. Healthy nail Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Nail Anatomy: Major Parts Nail plate (nail body) Cuticle Free edge Eponychium

Nail bed Hyponychium Matrix bed (nail root) Specialized ligaments Lunula

Nail folds Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nail Plate The most visible and functional part of the nail unit Rests on/slides across nail bed Formed by matrix cells Constructed in layers

Free edge extends over tips of finger or toe Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nail Bed Skin supporting nail plate as it grows toward free edge Extends from lunula to just before free edge Attached to nail plate Supplied with many nerves

Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nail Structure Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Matrix Bed

Where nail is formed Composed of matrix cells that produce nail plate Contains nerves, lymph, blood vessels to nourish nails Extends from under nail fold at base of nail plate Injury to matrix or poor health affects nail growth Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lunula

Visible part of matrix Whitish, half-moon shape at base of nail Color caused by reflection of light off matrix surface. Some are hidden under eponychium. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Cuticle Dead, colorless tissue attached to nail plate from

underside of skin that lies above natural nail plate Loose and flexible; difficult to remove from nail plate Seals area against foreign material and microorganisms Helps prevent injury and infection Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Eponychium

The living skin at base of nail plate covering matrix Cannot be trimmed or cut by nail technician Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Hyponychium The slightly thickened skin that lies between the fingertip and the free edge Protective barrier that seals the free edge, preventing

external moisture, bacteria, or fungi from getting under the nail Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Specialized Ligaments Tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect bones or hold an organ in place Attach the nail bed and matrix bed to underlying bone

Located at base of matrix and around edges of nail bed Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nail Folds Folds of normal skin surrounding nail plate Form nail grooves on which the nail moves as it grows

Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nail Growth Process Growth is affected by nutrition, general health, and exercise. Nails grow forward, starting at matrix and extending over fingertip. Nails grow in a variety of shapes. Average growth is 1/10 of an inch per month.

Growth is faster in summer than winter. Childrens nails grow faster than adults nails. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Nail Growth Process (continued)

Middle fingernail grows fastest. Thumbnail grows slowest. Toenails grow slower than fingernails. Nails are not shed automatically like hair is. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Nail Malformation Disease, injury, or infection can affect the formation of nails. If the matrix remains in good condition, a normal fingernail will be replaced in 4 to 6 months, a toenail in 9 to 12 months. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Summary and Review What is the technical term for the nail? What protein is in the nail plate? Describe the appearance of a normal, healthy nail. Name the basic parts of the nail unit. Explain the difference between the nail plate and the nail bed. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Summary and Review (continued) What part of the nail unit contains the nerves, lymph, and blood vessels? What is the difference between the cuticle and the eponychium? Why are cosmetologists not allowed to cut the skin around the base of the nail plate? What three things can affect the growth of the nail plate? Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Congratulations! You have completed one unit of study toward course completion. Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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