Chapter 3 Cells 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives Identify the structure of a typical cell Define the function of each component of a typical cell Relate the function of cells to the function of the body Describe the processes that transport materials in and out of a cell Describe a tumor and define cancer
Define the key words that relate to this chapter 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cells The cell is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things Cell or plasma membrane
2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Nucleus Most important organelle within the cell Function Control the activities of the cell and facilitate cell division DNA and chromatin Chromosomes Nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope Regulates transport of substances into and out of the cell Nucleoplasm
A clear, semi-liquid medium that fills the spaces around the chromatin and the nucleoli 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cell Organelles Nucleolus Ribosomes Serves at site for protein synthesis Cytoplasm Cytoplasm is the background for all chemical reactions that take place in a cell, such as protein synthesis and cellular respiration Embedded in the cytoplasm are organelles, or cell structures that
help a cell to function Centrosome Centrioles found in the centrosome function in cell reproduction by aiding in the equal distribution of chromosomes to the new daughter cells 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cell Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum Provides passage through which transport of substances occurs in cytoplasm
Mitochondria Serves as sites of cellular respiration and energy production; stores ATP Golgi apparatus Manufactures carbohydrates and packages secretions for discharge from the cell Lysosomes Serve as center for cellular digestion 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Cell Organelles Perioxisomes Enzymes oxidize cell substances Cytoskeleton Forms internal framework Pinocytic vesicles Method by which large molecules can enter the cell Cilia and flagella Create movement
2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cellular Metabolism Chemical reactions occur within the cells Energy supplied by ATP ATP created from CHO, proteins, and fats we eat 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cell Division Meiosis
Involves reproduction Mitosis Involves growth and maintenance of cells 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Meiosis Process of cell division of the sex cell or gamete Ovum and spermatozoa reduce chromosomes from 46 to 23
Fertilization Zygote is formed from two sex cells to obtain full set of 46 chromosomes 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Mitosis Cell division Division of the nucleus Division of the cytoplasm Mitosis essentially is an orderly series of steps by which the DNA in the nucleus of the cell is equally distributed to two daughter, or
identical nuclei All cells do not reproduce at the same rate 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Mitosis Stages Phase I Interphase (resting stage) Phase II Prophase Phase III
Metaphase Phase IV Anaphase Phase V Telophase Cycle back to interphase 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Cell Death Necrosis
DNA Determines the kinds of proteins that are produced RNA Carries instruction for protein synthesis form the DNA to the ribosome in the cytoplasm Transports amino acid molecule in the cytoplasm and takes it to the ribosome where they combine to form a specific protein 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Movement of Materials Across Cell Membranes Passive transport Do not require an energy source Active transport Require an energy source 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diffusion Passive Transport
A physical process whereby molecules of gases, liquids or solid particles spread or scatter themselves evenly through a medium Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water or any other solvent molecule through a selective permeable membrane from a region of higher concentration of water molecules to a region of lower concentration of water molecules
Filtration Filtration is the movement of solutes and water across a 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learningas a result of some mechanical semipermeable membrane Active Transport Phagocytosis Cell eating Cell membrane engulfs a particle to form a vesicle in the cytoplasm where digestive enzymes destroy the
entrapped substance Pinocytosis Cell drinking Formation of pinocytic vesicles which engulf large molecules in solution then ingest the nutrients for its own use 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Specialization Nerve cells Specialize in response
Red blood cells Specialize in oxygen transport May lose some functions, such as reproduction Interdependence among cells 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Aging Aging is a phase of normal development Older person may have 30% fewer cells
Cells may change in ability to perform specialized tasks 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Disorders of Cell Structure
Atrophy Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Metaplasia Dysplasia Neoplasia 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Tumor When cell division does not occur in the usual pattern Also called neoplasms
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However, differences at the genetic and microscopic levels are already Apparent. Female nuclei contain a Barr body, which is an inactivated X chromosome Male embryos show gene expression of some Y specific proteins such as SRY, testis determining factor, and...
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