Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Self-Assessment and Positive Psychology Organizational Behavior

Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Self-Assessment and Positive Psychology Organizational Behavior

Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Self-Assessment and Positive Psychology Organizational Behavior a LSS Approach to Productivity Professor Mort Anvari Project Management and LSS Chapter 1 Introduction and Outlines 1 Self-Assessment - Agenda Anvari.Net Anvari.Net I. WHAT ABOUT ME? A. Personality Insights 1. Whats My Basic Personality? 2. What's My Jungian 16-Type Personality? 3. Am I a Type-A? 4. How Well Do I Handle Ambiguity? 5. How Creative Am I? B. Values and Atti tude Insights 1. What Do I Value? 2. How Involved Am I In My Job? 3. How Satisfied Am I With My Job? 4. What Are My Atti tudes Toward Workplace Diversity? C. Motivation Insights 1. What Motivates Me?

2. What are My Dominant Needs? 3. What Rewards Do I Value Most? 4. What's My View on the Nature of People? 5. What are My Course Performance Goals? 6. How Confident Am I In My Abilities to Succeed? 7. Whats My Atti tude Toward Achievement? 8. Whats My Jobs Motivating Potential? 9. Do I Want an Enriched Job? D. Decision Making Insights 1. Am I a Procrastinator? 2. How Do My Ethics Rate? E. Other 1. What's My Emotio nal Intelligence Score? 2. What Time of Day Am I Most Productive? 3. How Good Am I at Personal Planning? 4. Am I Likely to Become an Entrepreneur? II. WORKING WITH OTHERS A. Communication Skills 1. What's My Face-to-Face Communicatio n Style? 2. How Good Are My Listening Skills? B. Leadership and Team Skills 1. What's My Leadership Style? 2. How Charismatic Am I? 3. Do I Trust Others? 4. Do Others See Me as Trusting? 5. How Good Am I at Disciplining Others? 6. How Good Am I at Building and Leading a Team? C. Power and Conflict Skills 1. How Power-Oriented Am I? 2. What's My Preferred Type of Power? 3. How Good Am I at Playing Politic s? 4. How Well Do I Manage Impressions?

5. How Do I Handle Conflict? 6. Whats My Negotiating Style? III. LIFE IN ORGANIZATIONS A. Organization Structure 1. What Type of Organization Structure Do I Prefer? 2. How Willing Am I to Delegate? 3. How Good Am I at Giving Performance Feedback? B. Careers 1. What's the Right Organizational Culture For Me? 2. How Committed Am I to My Organization? 3. Am I Experiencing Work/Family Conflict? 4. How Motivated Am I To Manage? 5. Am I Well-Suited for a Career as a Global Manager? C. Change and Stress 1. How Well Do I Respond to Turbulent Change? 2. How Stressful Is My Life? 3. Am I Burned Out? IV. NEW ASSESSMENTS A. Personality Insights 1. Am I A Narcissist? 2. Am I A Deliberate Decision Maker? 3. How Confident Am I In My Abilities To Succeed? 4. How Spiritual Am I? B. Motivation Insights 1. Am I Engaged? C. Values and Atti tude Insights 1. Whats My Atti tude Toward Older People? 2. What Are My Gender Role Perceptions? D. Mood and Emotion Insights 1. How Are You Feeling Right Now? 2. Whats My Affect Intensity?

E. Leadership and Team Skills 1. Do I Have A Negative Atti tude Toward Working In Groups? 2. What Is My Team Efficacy? 3. Am I A Gossip? 4. Am I An Ethical Leader? 5. Whats My LPC Score? F. Organization Structure 1. Is My Workplace Political? 2. Do I Like Bureaucracy? G. Other 1. How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? How Much Do I Know About HRM? 2 Positive Psychs Official Beginning Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Father of Positive Psychology Father of Positive Psychology Martin Seligman 1998 APA Presidential address Martin Seligman 1998 APA Presidential address Proposed shift in focus for all of psychology: Proposed shift in focus for all of psychology: Positive Psychology Positive Psychology FROM: studying and trying to undo the worst things in life FROM: studying and trying to undo the worst things in life TO: studying and trying to build the best things in life TO: studying and trying to build the best things in life Asked: Why not study courage , joy, hope, happiness instead of just Asked:

Why not study couragepathology, , joy, hope,conformity, happiness instead of just anxiety, violence, addiction, prejudice? anxiety, violence, addiction, pathology, conformity, prejudice? Why A Positive Psychology? Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Inside Factors Balance: A. General Psychology: Restoring balance to psychologys historic emphasis on the negative. Add study of positives. - Overcome negative image of human nature. - What learned about human nature in general psychology? - Neutral to negative classical conditioning, disease model, Milgram. B. Clinical Psychology: Providing language of mental health and human strengths to complement and complete language of mental illness and disease model 4 Why A Positive Psychology? Anvari.Net Anvari.Net

B. Clinical Psychology: Providing language of mental health and human strengths to complement and complete language of mental illness and disease model. -Traditional Psych. - Disease Model - DSM - whats wrong. - Positive Psych. - Strengths Model - Positive mental health whats right. -Traditional Psych. - life below zero. - Positive Psych. - What is life above zero? Absence of illness isnt health. 5 Completeness Anvari.Net Anvari.Net A. Restoring psychologys original focus on the totality of human A. Restoring psychologys original focus on the totality of human qualities and experiences, including those declared off-limits for qualities and experiences, including those declared off-limits for scientific psychology. scientific psychology. - Bringing back forbidden topics, e.g., virtue, religion. - Bringing back forbidden topics, e.g., virtue, religion. B. Good Life - life well-lived. B. Good Life - life well-lived. - Know about a bad life - what is a good life? - Know about a bad life - what is a good life? - Provide answers to deathbed test. - Provide answers to deathbed test. - I wish I had devoted more of my life to________. - I wish I had devoted more of my life to________. - What matters most in life? - What matters most in life?

- Medical science defined healthy lifestyle - markers of health. - Medical science defined healthy lifestyle - markers of health. - Psychological science - definitions & markers of health & - Psychological science - definitions & markers of health & flourishing? flourishing? Historical Focus of Psychology Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Why has Psychology Historically Focused on the Negative and Why has Psychology Historically Focused on the Negative and Not the Positives in Human Experience? Not the Positives in Human Experience? Disease Model & Being Useful: Disease Model & Being Useful: Psychologys historical desire to be useful, gain status, respect Psychologys historical desire to be useful, gain status, respect as a scientific discipline by solving problems. as a scientific discipline by solving problems. Dominance of Disease Model - primacy of pathology as a Dominance of Disease Model - primacy of pathology as a focus. focus. World Wars. World Wars. Beliefs About Authenticity Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Beliefs About Authenticity Negatives states viewed as more real and authentic.

Cynical view - Freud - underneath veneer of civility and politeness lies nasty emotions and self-serving motives. Psychology of motivation - self-serving biases, reinforcement, power, selfimage protection, and promotion. Beliefs About Positive Emotions Joy, hope, optimism, happiness viewed as coping mechanisms to offset negative emotions. Not valuable in own right. E.g., Offsetting stress versus cultivating positive emotions. 8 Why negative? Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Power of Negative Power of Negative Trait Negativity Bias Trait Negativity Bias Research: Research: - Impression formation gives more weight to negative information - Impression formation gives more weight to negative information - Relationships - One negative can undo thousand acts of kindness. - Relationships - One negative can undo thousand acts of kindness. Presence or absence of negative, not positive, differentiates good from bad Presence or absence of negative, not positive, differentiates good from bad relationships. relationships. Why negative given more weight & attention? Why negative given more weight & attention? 1.Violates general expectation of positivity in everyday life. 1.Violates general expectation of positivity in everyday life. 2. Evolutionary value of negative/threats over positive. 2. Evolutionary value of negative/threats over positive.

Factors Outside Psychology - Why Now? Factors Outside Psychology - Why Now? Why explosion in interest, books, articles, press coverage? Why explosion in interest, books, articles, press coverage? Psychology and the Zeitgeist of 1990s & early 2000s Psychology and the Zeitgeist of 1990s & early 2000s - Measures of material well-being going north. - Measures of material well-being going north. - Measures of subjective well-being going south. - Measures of subjective well-being going south. - Levels of happiness flat despite dramatic gains in income/material - Levels of happiness flat despite dramatic gains in income/material possessions. possessions. Paradox of Affluence - affluence and emotional well-being and Paradox of Affluence - affluence and emotional well-being and cultural malaise. cultural malaise. Affluent families & kids - The Lost Children of Rockdale Affluent County. families & kids - The Lost Children of Rockdale County. Too materialistic - Cushman empty self. Too materialistic - Cushman empty self. Too disconnected from communities & family. PutnamToo disconnected from communities & family. PutnamBowling Alone. Bowling Alone.

Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Depression - up despite increased affluence Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Rates: higher than ever - epidemic Rates: higher than ever - epidemic - Over last 40 years, twice as rich but 10 times more likely to be - Over last 40- years, twiceamong as richyoung, but 10affluent, times more likely to be depressed high rates educated. depressed - high rates among young, affluent, educated. - 15-20% of Americans suffer bout with severe depression. - 15-20% of Americans suffer bout with severe depression. - 50% deal with milder forms. - 50% deal with milder forms. - Women twice rates of men. - Women twice rates of men. Onset: Onset: Past - average age of onset in 30s. Past - average age of onset in 30s. Today - 14 to 15 years old10th grade girls40-%-50% -symptoms. Today - 14 to 15 years old10th grade girls40-%-50% -symptoms. Other indicators:

Other indicators: Divorce rates doubled, teen suicide tripled, juvenile crime Divorce rates doubled, teen suicide tripled, juvenile crime quadrupled. quadrupled. Current Culture Vs. Traditional Psychology Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Outside & Inside Outside & Inside - Pop Psychology: Oprah & Dr. Phil - Pop Psychology: Oprah & Dr. Phil Millions looking for guidance & direction to find happy and meaningful Millions looking for guidance & direction to find happy and meaningful life. life. - What does psychology have to offer? - Mostly negative. - What does psychology have to offer? - Mostly negative. Diener: 17 studies of negative states to 1 of positive. Diener: 17 studies of negative states to 1 of positive. Seligman: last 30 years - 54,000 articles on depression, only 14 on joy. Seligman: last 30 years - 54,000 articles on depression, only 14 on joy. 2% of NIMH budget of 1 billion spent on human strengths. 2% of NIMH budget of 1 billion spent on human strengths. 19,00 articles on bias and error to 7,500 articles on strength and virtue. 19,00 articles on bias and error to 7,500 articles on strength and virtue. Defining Positive Psychology Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Orientation & Goals

Orientation & Goals 1. Balance & Completeness 1. Balance & Completeness Restore balance to field of psychologypositives and negatives. Restore balance to field of psychologypositives and negatives. Just as important to know how most teens maintain health and happiness Just as important know most maintain (majority) as to to now whyhow some get teens depressed, use health drugs, and etc. happiness (majority) as to now why some get depressed, use drugs, etc. 2. Positive life above zero 2. Positive life above zero Psychology should be more than a bicycle repair shop for broken lives. Psychology should benot more than a bicycle repair for broken lives.

Absence of misery same thing as health or shop happiness. Absence of misery not same thing as health or happiness. 3. Health & Strengths 3. Health & Strengths What is life like on the other side of zero? Positive mental health. What is life like on the other side of zero? Positive mental health. Focus on positive: emotional health, strength, virtue, happiness, joy, Focus on positive: satisfaction, etc. emotional health, strength, virtue, happiness, joy, satisfaction, etc. Develop classification of positive mental health, strengths & virtues Develop classification equivalent to DSM. of positive mental health, strengths & virtues equivalent to DSM. Definition Agenda Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Seligman: Seligman: Positive Psych. - study of what makes life worth living: Positive Psych. - study of what makes life worth living: 1. The Pleasant Life: happiness - more positive than negative emotions.

1. The Pleasant Life: happiness - more positive than negative emotions. 2. The Engaged Life: active involvement, absorption in work, play, 2. The Engaged Life: active involvement, absorption in work, play, community, family, relationships. community, family, relationships. 3. The Meaningful Life: purpose, direction, personal expressiveness, 3. The Meaningful Life: purpose, direction, personal expressiveness, religion, spirituality, nature, transcendent beliefs beyond selfreligion, spirituality, nature, transcendent beliefs beyond selfinterest. interest. Measuring a good life Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Positive Psych. Research good life measured by: Positive Psych. Research good life measured by: 1. Happiness - life satisfaction, positive emotions. 1. Happiness - life satisfaction, positive emotions. 2. Health - physical & emotional well-being & positive mental health. 2. Health - physical & emotional well-being & positive mental health. 3. Meaningfulness - purpose, transcendent , beyond self. 3. Meaningfulness - purpose, transcendent , beyond self. 4. Virtue - good behavior - wisdom, forgiveness, courage. 4. Virtue - good behavior - wisdom, forgiveness, courage. DVs = 1-5 = good life

DVs = 1-5 = good life IVs = all aspects of our personal qualities & life circumstances that contribute to IVs = all aspects of our personal qualities & life circumstances that contribute to 1-5. 1-5. Baumgardner/Crothers definition: Baumgardner/Crothers definition: Positive psychology is the scientific study of the individual traits, life goals, Positive psychology is the scientific study of the individual traits, life goals, circumstances, and social conditions that contribute to a happy, a circumstances, and social conditions that contribute to a happy, a meaningful, a virtuous, and a healthy life, defined by flexible criteria that meaningful, a virtuous, and a healthy life, defined by flexible criteria that allow for individual and cultural differences in the particular features and allow for individual and cultural differences in the particular features and meanings of a life well-lived. meanings of a life well-lived. Can a good life be defined Anvari.Net Anvari.Net without imposing a one size fits all? without imposing a one size fits all? Potential Sources of Bias Potential Sources of Bias 1.Western cultural bias 1.Western cultural bias universal or culturally relative? universal or culturally relative? support for both support for both Values in Action Project

Values in Action Project Asian emotional moderation Asian emotional moderation 2. Middle-class liberal psychologists bias 2. Middle-class liberal psychologists bias Poor? Poor? College students College students 3. Developmental Bias (last) 3. Developmental Bias (last) Young versus elderly? Young versus elderly? Research: same level just different basis Research: same level just different basis Power of the Positive Anvari.Net Anvari.Net The Nun Study - Danner, Snowdon, & Friesen JPSP 01 The Nun Study - Danner, Snowdon, & Friesen JPSP 01 Prior Research: Prior Research: - Emotions, health & immune system - Emotions, health & immune system - Genetics & temperament - Labrador effect - Genetics & temperament - Labrador effect - Temperament, + & - emotions, coping - Temperament, + & - emotions, coping - Writing about significant life events - outlook - Writing about significant life events - outlook Hypothesis: Cheerful people shown in autobiographical

Hypothesis: Cheerful people shown in autobiographical sketches will live longer than sourpusses. sketches will live longer than sourpusses. Sample: 180 nuns - 1930s (ideal sample) Sample: 180 nuns - 1930s (ideal sample) IV: Emotions shown in autobiographical statements IV: Emotions shown in autobiographical statements DV: Mortality & longevity DV: Mortality & longevity Results Compare upper 25% to lowest 25% in expressions of positive Compare upper 25% to lowest 25% in expressions of positive emotion in words & sentences. emotion in words & sentences. - 90% of most cheerful nuns alive at 85 yrs. of age. - 90% of most cheerful nuns alive at 85 yrs. of age. - Only 34% of least cheerful alive at 85. - Only 34% of least cheerful alive at 85. - 54% of most cheerful still going at 94 yrs. - 54% of most cheerful still going at 94 yrs. - Only 11% of least cheerful. - Only 11% of least cheerful. Early deaths in 50s & 60s mostly least cheerful. Early deaths in 50s & 60s mostly least cheerful. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net One Final Issue - Myers Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Does it make sense to study happiness and health when the world is full of of

Does itmuch makemisery? sense to study happiness and health when the world is full of of much misery? Isnt happiness a self-focused, self-absorbed, and selfish state that has no Isnt happiness a self-focused, self-absorbed, andindividual? selfish state that has no enduring value beyond the pleasure of the enduring value beyond the pleasure of the individual? What are people like when they are happy & content versus when unhappy or What depressed? are people like when they are happy & content versus when unhappy or depressed? When were happy are we more likely to be: When were happy are we more likely to be: Self or other focused? Self or other focused? Selfish or compassionate? Selfish or compassionate? Unhelpful or helpful to others? Unhelpful or helpful to others? Hold a grudge or forgive? Hold a grudge or forgive? Intolerant or tolerant? Intolerant or tolerant? Unkind or kind to others? Unkind or kind to others? Research conclusions. Research conclusions.

History and Context within Psychology Anvari.Net Anvari.Net History - the positive in psychology. History - the positive in psychology. Drawing together positive research and theory. Drawing together positive research and theory. Quality of Life Surveys - subjective well-being. Quality of Life Surveys - subjective well-being. Objective circumstances dont matter much: Objective circumstances dont matter much: 10-15%. 10-15%. Humanistic psychology (theory, no data). Humanistic psychology (theory, no data). Actualizing inner potentials - moving up need hierarchy. Actualizing inner potentials - moving up need hierarchy. Optimal functioning - peak experiences - personally expressive Optimal functioning - peak experiences - personally expressive life. life. Current theory & research picked up humanistic ideas. Current theory & research picked up humanistic ideas. History Clinical Psychology Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Disillusionment with disease model - prevention of illness & promotion of public mental health. Curing illness not same as enhancing health.

PTSD versus PTG - over therapizing. Developmental & Lifespan Psychology Amazing resilience/strength among children, teens, adults, and elderly in face of major life traumas and changes. Normal or enhanced functioning in face of threats. Successful Aging - most elderly not depressed, or in ill-health. Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory - positive spin to previous negative interpretations of change. 21 History Psychology Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Mind-body connections, power of positive beliefs & emotions. Mind-body connections, power of positive beliefs & emotions. Hope, optimism and will show real effects. Hope, optimism and will show real effects. Social support from others. Social support from others. Social/PersonalityPsychology Psychology&&Psych. Psych.ofofReligion Religion Social/Personality Relationships, health, and happiness. Relationships, health, and happiness. Self-esteem, positive view of self, positive illusions. Self-esteem, positive view of self, positive illusions. Critiques of materialistic beliefs and values. Critiques of materialistic beliefs and values.

The Meaning and Measure of Happiness Anvari.Net Anvari.Net How should we evaluate the well-being of a society, a community, an individual life? What measurable qualities should we use? I. Traditional Measures of Well-Being Economic Indicators - income, unemployment, inflation, poverty, inequality, home ownership, job growth, etc. Mental Health - depression, stress, suicide, autism, etc. Physical Health - cancer, heart disease, obesity, etc. Quality of Life - best cities, services, jobs, environment. II. Positive Psychology - Critique 1. What is not measured . 2. Misleading assumptions. 3. Limits of objective measures & importance of subjective judgments. Limitations of Traditional Measures Limitations of Traditional Measures 1. Assess negatives not positives of life 1. Assess negatives not positives of life Misery index - do not directly measure health & happiness. Misery index - do not directly measure health & happiness. Problem: Surveys - happiness & life satisfaction important life goal. Problem: Surveys - happiness & life satisfaction important life goal. Part of most American culture - Declaration of Independence . Part of most American culture - Declaration of Independence . Cory Keyes: positive health vs. only illness rates. Cory Keyes: positive health vs. only illness rates. 2. Infer health & happiness 2. Infer health & happiness Assumes: well-being/happiness = absence of misery or negative Assumes: well-being/happiness orbetter negative

functioning - if not unhappy or=illabsence must beofokmisery - doing when misery functioning not unhappy or ill must be ok - doing better when misery index goes- if down. index goes down. Problem: absence of misery (e.g.depression) not same as Problem: absence of misery (e.g.depression) not same as health and happiness. health and happiness. 3. Objective measures not same as subjective experience 3. Objective measures not same as subjective experience Assumes: money/material possessions primary factor in good life. Assumes: money/material possessions primary factor in good life. Happier - when income, jobs go up, etc. Happier - when income, jobs go up, etc. Problem- faulty assumption - objective life circumstances, money, income very Problem-weakly faulty assumption - objective life circumstances, related to happiness - threshold effect. money, income very weakly related to happiness - threshold effect. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Positive Psychologys Alternative Measures Positive Psychologys Alternative Measures 1. Measure happiness directly, not indirectly 1. Measure happiness directly, not indirectly No inferences - are we happy or not?

No inferences - are we happy or not? Do objective facts make a difference or not? Do objective facts make a difference or not? E.g., Large-scale national and world surveys. E.g., Large-scale national and world surveys. 2. Define and measure aspects of positive functioning directly. 2. Define and measure aspects of positive functioning directly. What is a good life beyond absence of misery? What is a good life beyond absence of misery? What is on the other side of zero? Millions languishing but not What is on the other side of zero? Millions languishing but not mentally? mentally? How many show positive mental health, optimal functioning, flourishing? How many show positive mental health, optimal functioning, flourishing? 3. Give primacy to subjective nature of health & happiness. 3. Give primacy to subjective nature of health & happiness. Peoples interpretation of their life matters as much as facts. Peoples interpretation of their life matters as much as facts. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Make a Difference? Anvari.Net Anvari.Net National Subjective Well-Being Index Ed Diener. Psychological equivalent to GNP make widely available (Eurobarometer). Complement economic and social indicators.

Quality of life that includes subjective factors Sense of community, happiness, beauty, promotion of positive behaviors. What Is Happiness & Well-Being? What Is Happiness & Well-Being? Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Two Views of Happiness and Well-Being Two Views of Happiness and Well-Being 1. Hedonic View Happiness & Satisfaction (SWB) 1. Hedonic View Happiness & Satisfaction (SWB) - Happiness is persons own subjective judgment of the overall balance of - Happiness is persons own subjective judgment of the overall balance of good and bad in their life. good and bad in their life. - From own point of view how satisfied are you, are positive emotions and - From own point of view how satisfied are you, are positive emotions and events running ahead of negative? events running ahead of negative? Satisfaction + abundance of positive emotions (happiness). Satisfaction + abundance of positive emotions (happiness). Research-driven approach Research-driven approach Are people happy? To what degree? What is happiness related or correlated Are people happy? To what degree? What is happiness related or correlated with? Profile of happy and unhappy people. with? Profile of happy and unhappy people. Basis of happiness is empirical question. Basis of happiness is empirical question.

Eudemonic View Self-Realization & Optimal Functioning Anvari.Net Anvari.Net - Happiness and well-being more than emotion and satisfaction. - Happiness and well-being more than emotion and satisfaction. - Happiness machine More to life than subjective pleasure. - Happiness machine More to life than subjective pleasure. Deeper meanings + mental/emotional health. Deeper meanings + mental/emotional health. A. Self-realization & meaning: Eudaimonic daimon = true self A. Self-realization & meaning: Eudaimonic daimon = true self Happiness and well-being result from expressing our inner potentials, selfHappiness and from our inner potentials,Satisfaction selfrealization of well-being talents andresult values, andexpressing healthy positive functioning. from realization of talents and values, and healthy positive functioning.

Satisfaction from overcoming challenge. Deserve our happiness and satisfaction because of abilities overcoming and effort.challenge. Deserve our happiness and satisfaction because of abilities and effort. B. Optimal functioning - Can you be happy and mentally ill, i.e., not healthy? B. Optimal functioning - Can you be happy and mentally ill, i.e., not healthy? Eudaimonic view thinks should be able to tell the difference. Eudaimonic view thinks should be able to tell the difference. Health involves doing the hard things - not necessarily happy. Health involves doing the hard things - not necessarily happy. Eudaimonic view Definition/measure of well-being should define basis of happiness Eudaimonic view Definition/measure of well-being should define basis of happiness and health. and health. Theory-driven approach, i.e., theory of happiness first, then studies to evaluate/refine Theory-driven theory. approach, i.e., theory of happiness first, then studies to evaluate/refine theory. Hedonic & Eudemonic Anvari.Net Anvari.Net 1. List three activities that bring you pleasure and make you feel good. 2. List three activities that bring a feeling of accomplishment, express your interests, talents, or passions and give you a sense that this is who you are. 3. How much do your two lists overlap? 4. What are the psychological differences between activities on list 1 and list 2 that do not overlap?

Comparison: Overlapping but Different Comparison: Overlapping but Different Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Waterman: If you wanted another person to know about who you are and what you are like as a Waterman: If youwhat wanted person to know about youyou aredescribe? and what List you four are like as a person, fouranother activities of importance to youwho would activities. person, what activities importance you describe? List four activities. 1,2,3,4. Ratefour each activityof

twice (using 3to PEyou andwould HE criteria) 71,2,3,4. Rate 6 each5activity twice 4 (using 33 PE and HE 2 criteria)1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree Slightly uncertain Slightly Disagree Strongly Strongly Slightly Disagree Disagree Strongly Agree AgreeAgreeSlightly uncertain Disagree Agree Agree Disagree Disagree PE PE1. This activity gives me my strongest feeling of really being alive and expressing my best 1. This activity gives me my strongest feeling of really being alive and expressing my best potentials. potentials. 2. When I engage in this activity I feel this is what I was meant to do.

2. 3. When I engage in in this activity I feel this is what I was meant to than do. I do in most activities, a When I engage this activity I feel more intensely involved 3. When feeling I engageofinspecial this activity I feel more intensely involvedchallenge, than I do in most activities, a fit or meshing, high concentration, and effort.

HE feeling of special fit or meshing, high concentration, challenge, and effort. HE 1.This activity gives me the strongest sense of enjoyment and pleasure. Im relaxed and 1.This activity gives me the strongest sense of enjoyment and pleasure. Im relaxed and content. content. 2. When I engage in this activity I forget about my problems and lose track of time. Easy to do 2. When go I engage in this with the flow.activity I forget about my problems and lose track of time. Easy to do go with the flow. 3. When I engage in this activity I feel happier and more excited than I do in other activities. 3. Found: When I engage activity and more excited than I do in other activities. PE & HEin this r =.70 to .80I feel 50 happier to 66% overlap. Found: PE & HE r =.70 to .80 50 to 66% overlap. Laura King - Positive Affect and Meaning Laura King - Positive Affect and Meaning Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Traditional opposition of pleasure and meaning - shallow vs. deeper Traditional opposition of pleasure and meaning - shallow vs. deeper

King: How positive affect/emotion may contribute to meaning King: How positive affect/emotion may contribute to meaning 1. Positive emotions enhance meaning - fun with friends, scenery - think of 1. Positive enhance meaning fun with friends, scenery - think of larger emotions context, appreciation of life, -whats important larger context, appreciation of life, whats important 2. Positive emotions as markers of meaningful events 2. Positive emotions as markers of meaningful events Personally expressive/meaningful events also pleasant Personally expressive/meaningful events also pleasant e.g., Christmas - childhood memories e.g., Christmas - childhood memories Six studies: Six studies: Diary study: Each day found something purposeful & meaningful -reason for Diary study: being hereEach day found something purposeful & meaningful -reason for being here rated positive affect rated positive affect Expt. Manipulate mood Expt. Manipulate mood All showed meaning and positive emotions strongly related All showed meaning and positive emotions strongly related Two-way street - each contributing to other Two-way street - each contributing to other

Differences & Similarities Differences & Similarities Differences Differences Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Hedonic View: Happiness = Positive Emotions + Satisfaction Hedonic View: Happiness = Positive Emotions + Satisfaction Basis of happiness to be discovered through research - empirically. Basis of happiness to be discovered through research - empirically. Why we are happy not answered by theory or definition. Why we are happy not answered by theory or definition. Quick and easy measures - easy to assess. Quick and easy measures - easy to assess. Research-driven approach. Research-driven approach. Eudaimonic View - Personal Expressiveness, Optimal Functioning, Positive Eudaimonic View - Personal Expressiveness, Optimal Functioning, Positive Mental Health, and Meanfulness Mental Health, and Meanfulness Definition specifies basis for well-being, i.e., why/what makes us healthy. Likely to Definition specifies basis for well-being, i.e., why/what makes us healthy. Likely to also make us happy but maybe not in the short-term..e.g., strength to end bad also make us happy but maybe not in the short-term..e.g., strength to end bad relation, confront conflicts, say no. relation, confront conflicts, say no. Complicated, lengthy & involved assessment. Complicated, lengthy & involved assessment.

Theory-drivendefine well-being in way that includes why. Theory-drivendefine well-being in way that includes why. I.e., criteria for healthy, fully functioning person. I.e., criteria for healthy, fully functioning person. Simiarities Simiarities Moderate to strong correlations of r =.6. Tapping similar dimensions. Moderate to strong correlations of r =.6. Tapping similar dimensions. Hedonic View: Subjective Well-being (SWB) Hedonic View: Subjective Well-being (SWB) Subjective Well-Being (self-reported) Subjective Well-Being (self-reported) (dominates research) (dominates research) Colloquially - happiness. Colloquially - happiness. Relatively stable and pervasive sense that life is good. Relatively stable and pervasive sense that life is good. Initially conceived as three major components: Initially conceived as three major components: 1. Life satisfaction - global judgment about ones life 1. Life satisfaction - global judgment about ones life 2. Positive affect - experiencing many positive emotions and moods 2. Positive affect - experiencing many positive emotions and moods 3. Negative affect - experiencing low levels of negative affect (low negative 3. Negative affect - experiencing low levels of negative affect (low negative emotion & mood) (independence of pos. & neg.) emotion & mood) (independence of pos. & neg.) Anvari.Net Anvari.Net GlobalMeasures

Measures Global Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Life Satisfaction - single and multiple item scales Life Satisfaction - single and multiple item scales - Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would - Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too happy? you say you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too happy? - How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? - How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days? Very satisfied. Satisfied. Not very satisfied. Not at all satisfied? Very satisfied. Satisfied. Not very satisfied. Not at all satisfied? Rate on 7-point scale from delighted to terrible: Rate on 7-point scale from delighted to terrible: - Which face comes closest to expressing how you feel about your life as a - Which face comes closest to expressing how you feel about your life as a whole? Choose face: smile through neutral to frown whole? Choose face: smile through neutral to frown Lyubormirsky - Subjective Happiness Scale Lyubormirsky - Subjective Happiness Scale Life Satisfaction Scale - Ed Diener Life Satisfaction Scale - Ed Diener 7 Strongly agree 7 Strongly agree 6 Agree

6 Agree 5 Slightly agree 5 Slightly agree 4 Neither agree nor disagree 4 Neither agree nor disagree 3 Slightly disagree 3 Slightly disagree 2 Disagree 2 Disagree 1 Strongly agree 1 Strongly agree _____1. In most ways my life is close to my ideal. _____1. In most ways my life is close to my ideal. _____2. The conditions of my life are excellent. _____2. The conditions of my life are excellent. _____3. I am satisfied with my life. _____3. I am satisfied with my life. _____4. So far I have gotten the important things in life. _____4. So far I have gotten the important things in life. _____5. If I could live my life over, I would change almost _____5. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing. nothing. Add item ratings divide by 5 - Satisfaction ranges from 1 to 7 Add item ratings divide by 5 - Satisfaction ranges from 1 to 7 Anvari.Net Anvari.Net

Satisfaction in Life Domains Satisfaction in Life Domains Life satisfaction as total of satisfaction in important areas of life. Life satisfaction as total of satisfaction in important areas of life. More informative than global measure. More informative than global measure. How satisfied are you with: How satisfied are you with: Work Work Finances Finances Friends Friends Marriage Marriage Direction country is going Direction country is going Packers season Packers season Brett Favre Brett Favre Hobbies, etc. Hobbies, etc. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Emotional Component of SWB Emotional Component of SWB General Emotional State General Emotional State During the past few weeks have you ever felt:

During the past few weeks have you ever felt: Particularly excited or interested in something? Particularly excited or interested in something? Proud of an accomplishment? Proud of an accomplishment? On top of the world? On top of the world? That things are going your way? That things are going your way? Calm & peaceful? Calm & peaceful? Extremely happy? Extremely happy? During the past few weeks have you ever felt: During the past few weeks have you ever felt: So restless you couldnt sit long in a chair? So restless you couldnt sit long in a chair? Very lonely or remote from people? Bored? Very lonely or remote from people? Bored? Depressed or unhappy? Depressed or unhappy? Upset because someone criticized you? Hopeless? Worthless? Upset because someone criticized you? Hopeless? Worthless? Specific Emotions Specific Emotions PANAS PANAS Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Future in Your Smile? Future in Your Smile? Duchene versus Pan-Am Smile: Harker & Keltner JPSP - 01

Duchene versus Pan-Am Smile: Harker & Keltner JPSP - 01 Participants: 141 women graduates from Mills College Participants: 141 women graduates from Mills College DV: Senior class photo from 1960sDV: Senior class photo from 1960s- Coded as Duchene (genuine) or Pan-Am (forced). Coded as Duchene (genuine) or Pan-Am (forced). 50% coded as Duchene - natural. 50% coded as Duchene - natural. IV: Contacted at age 27, 43, & 52 yrs. old IV: Contacted at age 27, 43, & 52 yrs. old Measures happiness, satisfaction in life, marriage, health. Measures happiness, satisfaction in life, marriage, health. Results: Results: 1. Likelihood of stable & happy marriage versus single or divorced. 1. Likelihood of stable & happy marriage versus single or divorced. 2. Higher personal well-being, satisfaction, & happiness. 2. Higher personal well-being, satisfaction, & happiness. 3. Better mental & physical health. 3. Better mental & physical health. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Scoring & Interpretation Scoring & Interpretation Anvari.Net Anvari.Net

- Specify a time period - last week, this month, today. - Specify a time period - last week, this month, today. - Compute separate scores for positive and negative emotions. - Compute separate scores for positive and negative emotions. Positive affect & negative affect largely independent for given time period Positive affect & negative affect largely independent for given time period versus at one point in time. versus at one point in time. -Subtract negative from positive or divide positive by negative. -Subtract negative from positive or divide positive by negative. -Happiness defined as lots of positive and few negative emotions. -Happiness defined as lots of positive and few negative emotions. Finding: Happiness best predicted by frequency, not intensity, of positive Finding: Happiness best predicted by frequency, not intensity, of positive emotions. Intense moments of joy/ecstasy rare. emotions. Intense moments of joy/ecstasy rare. Summary: SWB = happiness - 3 parts (combined/separated in research) Summary: SWB = happiness - 3 parts (combined/separated in research) 1. Life Satisfaction 1. Life Satisfaction 2. Positive Affect 2. Positive Affect 3. Negative Affect 3. Negative Affect Global Self-Report Measures Global Self-Report Measures versus Experience Sampling versus Experience Sampling Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Global self-report measures susceptible to several sources of distortion. Asking

Global self-report measuresover susceptible several sources of distortion. Asking to integrate experiences long timetoperiods. to integrate experiences over long time periods. 1. Current mood - Schwartz & Strack 1. Current mood - Schwartz & Strack Finding money, my team wins, dirty & hot & smelly, sunny day. Finding money, my team wins, dirty & hot & smelly, sunny day. 2. Memory - selectivity & weighting 2. Memory - selectivity & weighting a. Peak-end-rule - Kahneman - peak intensity & ending intensity given most a. weight Peak-end-rule - Kahneman - peak- intensity & ending intensity given most in emotional experiences not duration. weight in emotional experiences - not duration. How bad/good and how it ends...not how long it lasts. How bad/good and how it ends...not how long it lasts. Ice water, aversive sounds. Ice water, aversive sounds. b. State-dependent memory: mood = recall cue b. State-dependent memory: mood = recall cue happy - remember good things happy - remember good things unhappy - remember all bad

unhappy - remember all bad Naturalistic Experience Sampling Methods Naturalistic Experience Sampling Methods On-line Assessment of Emotions On-line Assessment of Emotions 1. On-line measures 1. On-line measures Beeper studies (hand computer, etc.) report mood & what. Beeper studies (hand computer, etc.) report mood & what. Doing random times throughout day over period of weeks or months. Doing random times throughout day over period of weeks or months. Sample emotional experiences on-line as they happen. Sample emotional experiences on-line as they happen. Less chance for memory errors & emotional distortions. Less chance for memory errors & emotional distortions. 40% of daily fluctuations related to days of week. 40% of daily fluctuations related to days of week. Good mood on Friday & weekendsMonday = bummer. Good mood on Friday & weekendsMonday = bummer. 2. Retrospective measures (easier, less disruptive) 2. Retrospective measures (easier, less disruptive) - Diary record feelings and days events over time. - Diary record feelings and days events over time. - Day Reconstruction Method - Kahneman - Day Reconstruction Method - Kahneman Global measures versus ESM (eg., Packers) Global measures versus ESM (eg., Packers) Global - maximal sensitive to traits & meaning. Global - maximal sensitive to traits & meaning. ESM - max sensitive to states & short-term reactions. ESM - max sensitive to states & short-term reactions. Correlated but unless ESM long-term not larger. Correlated but unless ESM long-term not larger.

Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Validity & Reliability of SWB Measures Validity & Reliability of SWB Measures 1. Reliability: 1. Reliability: -Most measures show moderate to strong inter-correlations. -Most measures show moderate to strong inter-correlations. ESM moderate correlations with global measures. ESM moderate correlations with global measures. -Multi-item scales of life satisfaction and positive and negative emotions typically -Multi-item of single life satisfaction and positive and negative emotions typically exceedscales r = .80; item scales less. exceed r = .80; single item scales less. Moderate stability & consistency over time - i.e., reliable. Moderate stability & consistency over time - i.e., reliable. Sensitive to changes in life circumstances but also stable over long periods. Sensitive to changes in life circumstances but also stable over long periods. As good or better than other measures in psychology. As good or better than other measures in psychology. 2. Validity: 2. Validity:

Measures of SWB correlate with other traits & behaviors. Measures of SWB correlate with other traits & behaviors. Happy people act happy. Happy people act happy. -Confirmed by reports of friends, family, & co-workers. -Confirmed by reports of friends, family, & co-workers. - Outgoing, smile, laugh, work satisfaction, mental health. - Outgoing, smile, laugh, work satisfaction, mental health. Longevity, etc.. Longevity, etc.. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Eudaimonic Measures of Well-Being Eudaimonic Measures of Well-Being Positive Functioning and Positive Mental Health Positive Functioning and Positive Mental Health - How define opposite of psychopathology? I.e., mental illness. - How define opposite of psychopathology? I.e., mental illness. - Create language, definitions of health equivalent to language - Create language, definitions of health equivalent to language & definitions in DSMIV. & definitions in DSMIV. - Mental Health = emotional well-being and positive functioning. - Mental Health = emotional well-being and positive functioning. Not enough to feel good..be happy or satisfied. Not enough to feel good..be happy or satisfied. Also need psychological & social competence. Also need psychological & social competence. - SWB/Happiness is only one component of mental health. - SWB/Happiness is only one component of mental health. Comprehensive Model empirical support Comprehensive Model empirical support

Carol Ryff, Corey Keyes & Jeanna Magyor-Moe Carol Ryff, Corey Keyes & Jeanna Magyor-Moe Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Criteria of Flourishing, Psychological Well-Being Criteria of Flourishing, Psychological Well-Being Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Complete Mental Health. Optimal Functioning. Complete Mental Health. Optimal Functioning. Operational Definitions of Symptoms Operational Definitions of Symptoms of Mental Health of Mental Health 1. Emotional well-being: Positive Feelings 1. Emotional well-being: Positive Feelings 2. Psychological well-being: Positive Functioning 2. Psychological well-being: Positive Functioning 3. Social well-being: Positive Social Functioning 3. Social well-being: Positive Social Functioning Combines measures of emotional well-being and positive functioning. Combines measures of emotional well-being and positive functioning. Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Validated in major study in 1995: MacArthur Foundation Study of Successful Midlife (MIDUS Study) - 3,200 adults 25 to 74 DSM - presence/absence Flourishing Positive Mental Health

- Internal reliability .80 or higher. - Good factor structure: each component statistically distinct. - Positive measures negatively correlated with negative measures (e.g., depression) . Keyes - definitions & scale items. CompleteMental MentalHealth Health Complete Emotional Well-Being Emotional Well-Being Positive Affect - experience of positive emotions like joy & happiness. Positive Affect - experience of positive emotions like joy & happiness. During the last 30 days, how much of the time did you feel cheerful, in good During the last 30 days, how much of the time did you feel cheerful, in good spirits, extremely happy, calm and peaceful, satisfied and full of life? spirits, extremely happy, calm and peaceful, satisfied and full of life? Negative Affect - absence of emotions suggesting life is unpleasant. Negative Affect - absence of emotions suggesting life is unpleasant. During the last 30 days, how much of the time did you feel so sad nothing During the last 30 days, how much of the time did you feel so sad nothing could cheer you up, nervous, restless or fidgety, hopeless, that everything could cheer you up, nervous, restless or fidgety, hopeless, that everything was an effort, worthless? was an effort, worthless? Anvari.Net Anvari.Net

Life Satisfaction Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Life Satisfaction sense of contentment and satisfaction with life. During the last 30 days, how much of the time did you feel satisfied, full of life? Overall these days, how satisfied are you with your life? Happiness having a general feeling and experience of contentment and joy. Overall these days, how happy are you with your life? How frequently have you felt (joy, pleasure, happiness) in the week, month, or year? past PsychologicalWell-Being Well-Being Psychological 1. Self-Acceptance - Positive attitude towards oneself; accepts varied 1. Self-Acceptance attitude towards oneself; accepts varied aspects of self;- Positive feel positive about past life. of self; feel positive about past life. aspects In many ways I feel disappointed about my achievements in life. (-) In many ways I feel disappointed about my achievements in life. (-)

2. Personal Growth - Feelings of continued development & effectiveness; 2. Personal - Feelings of open toGrowth new experiences & continued challenges.development & effectiveness; to new experiences & challenges. open I think it is important to have new experiences that challenge how I I think it is important to have new experiences that challenge how I think about myself and the world. think about myself and the world. 3. Purpose in Life - Possessing goals and beliefs that give direction to life; 3. Purpose Lifemeaning - Possessing and beliefs that give direction to life; feel lifeinhas and goals purpose. life has meaning and purpose. feel I live life one day at a time and dont really think about the future. (-) I live life one day at a time and dont really think about the future. (-) 4. Environmental Mastery - Feel competent and able to manage complex 4. Environmental - Feel competent and ableliving to manage complex

environment;Mastery able to create personally suitable situation. able to create personally suitable living situation. environment; The demands of everyday life often get me down. (-) The demands of everyday life often get me down. (-) 5. Autonomy - Comfortable with self-direction; possess internal standards; 5. Autonomy - Comfortable with self-direction; possess internal standards; resist negative social pressures from others. negative social pressures from others. resist I have confidence in my own opinions, even if they are different from the way most I have in my own opinions, even if they are different from the way most otherconfidence people think. other people think. 6. Positive Relations with Others - Warm, satisfying, and trusting 6. Positive Relations with Others - Warm, satisfying,and andintimacy.

trusting relationships with others; capable of empathy relationships with others; capable of empathy and intimacy. -- Maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for me. (-) -- Maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for me. (-) Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Social Well-Being Social Well-Being 1. Social Acceptance - Positive attitudes towards others while understanding 1. their Socialcomplexities. Acceptance - Positive attitudes towards others while understanding their complexities. - People who do a favor expect nothing in return. - People who do a favor expect nothing in return. 2. Social Actualization - Cares about and believes that people have potential. Society 2. Social - Caresdirection. about and believes that people have potential. Society canActualization evolve in a positive a positiveadirection. - can The evolve world isinbecoming

better place for everyone. - The world is becoming a better place for everyone. 3. Social Contribution - Feel ones life is useful to society and valued by others. 3. -Social - Feel ones life to is useful to society and valued by others. I haveContribution something valuable to give the world. - I have something valuable to give to the world. 4. Social Coherence - Has interest in society and believes it is intelligible and 4. Social Coherence - Haspredictable, interest in society and believes it is intelligible and somewhat logical, and meaningful somewhat logical, predictable, and meaningful - I cannot make sense of whats going on in the world.(-) - I cannot make sense of whats going on in the world.(-) 5. Social Integration - Feels sense of belonging to a community; feels comfort and 5. Social Integration - Feels sense of belonging to a community; feels comfort and support from community. from community. - support

I dont feel I belong to anything Id call a community. (-) - I dont feel I belong to anything Id call a community. (-) Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Degrees of Mental Health & Illness Degrees of Mental Health & Illness Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Degrees of Mental health Degrees of Mental health -Flourishing High positive mental health and low mental illness. -Flourishing High positive mental health and low mental illness. -Moderate Mental Health Moderate positive mental health and low -Moderate Mental Health Moderate positive mental health and low symptoms of mental illness. symptoms of mental illness. Degrees of Mental Illness Degrees of Mental Illness -Mental Illness Low positive mental health and high symptoms of mental -Mental Illness Low positive mental health and high symptoms of mental illness. illness. -Moderate Mental Illness Low/moderate positive health and moderate -Moderate Mental Illness Low/moderate positive health and moderate illness (e.g., depressive episode).

illness (e.g., depressive episode). -Languishing Low positive mental health and low mental illness symptoms. Not -Languishing Low positive mental health and low mental illness symptoms. Not happy but not suffering from mental disorder. happy but not suffering from mental disorder. Findings Anvari.Net Anvari.Net Findings of the MIDUS study extrapolated adults from 25 to 74 in United States in 1995. Estimates-guesstimates for depression: - 26.6 million flourishing - 18.6 million pure languishing - 7.3 million moderate mental illness depressive episode and languishing - 14.5 million pure depression Self-Determination Theory - Deci & Ryan Anvari.Net Anvari.Net - Biological analogy humans, like all living things, need nutrients necessary for life. Compromised if not fulfilled. Defines basis of well-being in fulfillment of essential needs. -

Humans need three types of nutriments to ensure growth, integrity, and well-being: some in environment (state) some in individual (trait). Self-Determination Anvari.Net Anvari.Net 1. Autonomy - freely chosen activities and self-determined life of central importance. Need for individual freedom of action. (opposite?) Four degrees: extrinsic, introjected, identified, & intrinsic motives. 2. Competence effectiveness, achievement, pride. Need for success. (opposite) Relatedness positive connections with others - need to belong versus (opposite) exclusion, conflict, loneliness, social insecurity. 3. Traits & States Theory Traits: People high on these traits have higher SWB. States: Experiences that fulfill these needs lead to higher SWB. Baseline/traits and effects of experience.

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