Settlement and Integration in Canada: an Overview Presented
Settlement and Integration in Canada: an Overview Presented by Angela Arnet Connidis Integration Branch, CIC RCM Workshop, Costa Rica February 22- 24, 2012 Outline
Settlement and Integration Newcomers to Canada by source country Current Challenges Settlement Program Services Shared Responsibility Settlement Program Delivery Promotion of Settlement Services Refugees resettlement and assistance Foreign Credential Recognition Multiculturalism Citizenship Outcomes of newcomers to Canada 2 Settlement and Integration in Canada Settlement and integration of newcomers is an important objective under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. Settlement: The early years after arrival (three to five years) government support and services are critical to meet newcomer needs.
Integration: A longer-term process adaptation by both newcomers and Canadian society, Full participation of immigrants in the economic, political, social and cultural life of Canada. 3 Newcomers to Canada: Permanent Residents by source country 4 Current Challenges: Social and Cultural Increasing numbers of newcomers who do not speak English or French In 2010, 27% of those granted permanent status had no proficiency in either English or French: family class 30.6%; refugees 40.9%; economic class 24.4%.
Challenges regarding diversity A 2008 survey found 60% of Canadians agreeing that there are too many immigrants coming into this country who are not adopting Canadian values. Persistence of racism and hate crimes, concern of radicalization Perceived vulnerability to flashpoints/international conflicts Integration of specific groups (e.g. youth, 2nd generation, women) Concerns about ethnic neighbourhood concentration (including virtual enclaves) 5 Current Challenges: Economic Recent immigrants facing underemployment and limited upward mobility Earnings gap between recent immigrants and Canadian-born widening
In 2005, immigrant men earned 63 cents for every dollar earned by Canadianborn men, compared to 85 cents 25 years ago and immigrant women earned only 56 cents. Some visible minorities doing worse than others Newcomers from Europe tend to fare better than those from Latin America and Asia. Recent immigrants (especially refugees) from Africa experience the highest unemployment rate 6 Current Challenges: Civic and Political Declining civic participation Like the Canadian-born, there is declining civic participation and engagement
among immigrant populations In 2003, 5% of immigrants who had lived in Canada for less than six years reported voting in a recent election, compared to 80% among those who have lived in Canada for more than 25 years. Lack of knowledge of Canadian history and political institutions amongst all Canadians Over time visible minorities display less attachment to Canada and a weakened Canadian identity. Perceptions of citizenship of convenience New initiatives to against fraudulent immigration consultants and marriages of convenience
Elected bodies at all levels do not yet reflect Canadas diversity 7 Settlement and Integration Along the Continuum Outcomes Outcomes & & Indicators Indicators Focus Focus of of Public Public Policy Policy & & Programs Programs Application
Selection Arrival Formal Citizenship Access to Information & Awareness Access to Services Equality of Opportunities Life Satisfaction Sense of Belonging Settlement Program Services Needs Assessment and Referrals Determine eligibility, assess needs, and refer newcomers to other services Information and Awareness Services Provide pre- and post-arrival information Language Learning and Skills Development Training Employment-related Services
Search, gain, and retain employment Community Connections Establish a social and professional network Support Services Help to access settlement services (childcare, transportation) 9 Shared Responsibility Immigration is a shared jurisdiction: Canadas Settlement Program entails strong partnerships between federal, provincial and territorial governments. Federal settlement services are funded, designed and administered by federal government in all provinces and
territories, except: Qubec, British Columbia and Manitoba: devolution of responsibility Alberta: co-management agreement Provinces and territories also provide settlement support and services in areas such as: Income support, language and job training, labour market integration, recognition of foreign credentials, social services, housing, legal aid, business development and youth integration. 10 Settlement and Integration Program Delivery The bulk of settlement services are delivered by non-profit organizations, and are funded by the federal government. Educational institutions,
government organizations and other public institutions are becoming important players in settlement delivery Trend toward co-ordination and one-stop service points 11 Promotion of Settlement Services Settlement Information and Orientation Overseas In-person orientation: Canada Orientation Abroad (COA) & FCRO-led Canadian Immigration Integration Project Working in Canada Tool: Helps newcomers find Canadian job descriptions and wages Entry Requirements Tool
In Canada Newcomer Information Centres The Vaughan Welcome Centre Community Connection Projects Settlement Workers in schools Local immigration partnerships Library settlement partnerships 12 Overview of Overseas Current Activities Service Service Offerings Offerings Stages Settlement and labour market information available online at each stage in the process
(CIC website - FCRO website P/T Immigration Portals - Municipal Portals) Pre-Application, Application and Acknowledgement of receipt Post-selection (pending medical, security, etc.) Post-Arrival Online resources Materials sent out by CIC with acceptance letters or visas In-person orientation currently available to newcomers in more
than 50 countries (subject to demand) Bridging initiatives Links to settlement services and inCanada SPOs 13 Other Key CIC Programs Resettlement Assistance Program Immediate and essential services to government assisted resettled refugees and income support for a year Foreign Credentials Referral Office Information and referral services on foreign credential recognition Multiculturalism Program Focuses on building intercultural understanding, pride in Canadas history and core democratic values, and equal opportunity for Canadians of all ethnic origins
Citizenship Promotion starts at the pre-migration stage, and early naturalisation is encouraged and viewed as a key integration milestone. 14 Refugee Resettlement Under Canadas resettlement program, refugees and persons in need of protection can be resettled to Canada and can access resettlement assistance and settlement services. Main barriers for refugees are related to their youth and health: 40% of resettled refugees are under 18; refugee youth has lower level of formal education compared to Canadian youth; health concerns: malnutrition, psychosocial issues, lack of prior dental care.
Other barriers for resettled refugees: less formal education overall, less official language ability, and larger families than other immigrants. Refugees tend to be the highest users of settlement services, particularly information and orientation and language training. 15 Foreign Credential Recognition Client focused Systemic change Foreign Credentials Referral Office Foreign Credential Recognition
Program Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Citizenship and Immigration Canada Provides: Information Path finding Referral services to internationally trained individuals overseas and in Canada Supports initiatives that will improve assessment and recognition processes for employment in Canada. Internationally Educated Health Professionals Initiative Health Canada Supports programs that promote a consistent integration of international health professionals into the Labour Market.
16 Multiculturalism Program Objectives 1. Build An Integrated, Socially Cohesive Society 2. Improve the Responsiveness of Institutions to the Needs of a Diverse Population 3. Actively Engage in International Discussions on Multiculturalism and Diversity 17 Multiculturalism Build An Integrated, Socially Cohesive Society by: Building bridges to promote intercultural understanding; Fostering citizenship, civic memory, civic pride, and respect for core democratic values grounded in our history; Promoting equal opportunity for individuals of all origins. How?
Ministerial outreach to communities Public Education programs (e.g., Black History Month, Asian Heritage Month) Multiculturalism Grants and Contributions Program Historical Recognition Programs Canadas Action Plan Against Racism Research 18 Multiculturalism Improve the Responsiveness of Institutions to the Needs of a Diverse Population by: Assisting federal and public institutions to become more responsive to
diversity by integrating multiculturalism into their policy and program development and service delivery. How? Working with Public Institutions: Annual Report on the Operation of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act Interdepartmental collaboration and the Multiculturalism Champions Network Federal-Provincial-Territorial meetings Canadian Race Relations Foundation 19 Multiculturalism Actively Engage in Discussions on Multiculturalism and Diversity at the International Level by: Promoting Canadian approaches to diversity as a successful model while contributing to an international policy dialogue on issues related to multiculturalism.
How? International Task Force on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research Positioning in Global forums (e.g., UN, OSCE) Global Centre for Pluralism Ongoing international research (e.g., Metropolis) and policy discussions 20 Citizenship: Program Approach and Objectives To become a Citizen, a permanent resident must: Reside in Canada for three years Pass a test demonstrating knowledge of English or French, of Canada, and of citizens rights and responsibilities Cannot be a security risk or criminally prohibited
Inclusive approach to citizenship that: Encourages and facilitates naturalization by permanent residents Enhances the meaning of citizenship as a unifying bond High naturalization rate: 85% of eligible permanent residents apply A tool for nation building that helps foster a shared identity and a sense of belonging 21 Promoting Citizenship : Citizenship Action Plan Objectives
Citizenship study guide Discover Canada Changed citizenship test Language testing Meaningful citizenship ceremonies Improving tools for citizenship education and promotion Improving client service processing times Measures to address fraud Streamlined revocation process 22 First Official Canadian Citizenship Ceremony: 1947 Front row: Naif Hanna Azar (Palestine), Jerzy Wladyslaw Meier (Poland), Louis Edmon Brodbeck (Switzerland), Joachim Heinrich Hellmen (Germany), Jacko Hrushkowsky (Russia), and Anton Justinik (Yugoslavia)
Back row: Zigurd Larsen (Norway), Sgt. Maurice Labrosse (Canada), Joseph Litvinchuk (Roumania), Mrs. Labrosse (Scotland), Nestor Rakowitza (Roumania), Yousuf Karsh (Armenia), Mrs. Helen Sawicka (Poland) 23 Understanding Newcomer Outcomes Available research is showing the first four years are key for newcomers In the first years newcomers are most likely to experience difficulties in: finding employment accessing education and health care finding affordable housing
Newcomer needs vary along the integration continuum: what is adequate in the initial settlement stage (e.g. finding a job) may no longer be sufficient for long-term integration (e.g. job commensurate with education and skills). 24 Understanding Newcomer Outcomes Successes Uptake of Canadian citizenship is 85% (one of worlds highest rates) Four years after landing about three-quarters of newcomers are satisfied or very satisfied with their life in Canada Voting, volunteering and charitable giving of immigrants are at comparable level or slightly higher to Canadian-born Second generation immigrant children more likely to have a university degree and higher average earnings compared to both first generation and Canadian-born 25 Understanding Newcomer Outcomes
Challenges Recent immigrants have consistently low earnings and experience difficulties integrating the labour market (difficulties decrease with time spent in Canada) Official language literacy of immigrants is below-average compared to Canadian-born (60% of immigrants below Level 3 on International Adult Literacy Survey scores) Women, seniors, visible minorities and refugees face additional disadvantages and are more vulnerable to poor economic outcomes. 26 Second Generation Outcomes Second-generation Canadians are significant proportion of the population In 2006, accounted for 13% of the population 15 and over
On average, equal or better economic outcomes than those with Canadian-born parents - a unique finding among OECD countries Some areas of concern, such as lower labour market outcomes for visible minority men from West Africa, Caribbean and Latin America Most data suggests first-generation and second-generation Canadians have a stronger sense of belonging to Canada than the general population, increasing with each generation 27 Made In Canada By PHOEBE XINYI CHANG Title: Made in Canada Winner of Mathieu Da Costa Challenge National Writing and Artwork Contest 2009 (13-15 year old category)
28 Questions? Angela Arnet Connidis Director Integration Branch Citizenship and Immigration Canada (613) 946-0572 [email protected] 29
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