Natural Texas and Its People TEKS 7.2 (A) Compare the cultures of American Indian/Native Texans in Texas prior to European colonization such as Gulf, Plains, Puebloan, and Southeastern 7.9 (B) Compare places and regions of Texas in terms of physical and human characteristics #NATIP Era Overview: The everyday lives of Native Texans living in each of Texass 4 major regions are about family; faith in their gods, finding food resources, protecting family, war when necessary, and trading goods. The rich land in the Coastal Plains serve the semi-nomadic Karankawa well, as they hunt, fish, use alligator grease to repel deadly mosquitoes. Their taxi-cabs are dugout canoes, used to ride the coastal waters to gather foods & travel. They are tattooed, tall, muscular in appearance. And then there are the Coahuiltecans Natural Texas & Its People Texas has 4 major regions separated by Geography: Great Plains have
ROLLING, GRASSY PLAINS WITH HILLS, NOT MANY TREES, shrubs North Central Plains have Comanche, & Apache Kiowa, Wichita PRAIRIES, GRASSY PLAINS, ROLLING HILLS! TEKS 7.9A Geography Jumano, Concho, Tigua Mountains & Basins are in West TX where it is ROCKY and dry weather
Karankawa, Tonkawa Atakapan Coastal Plains are on/near the COAST by water! The People of Natural Texas Plains Indians were semi-nomadic & Comanche, & Apache were fierce warriors and skilled horsemen nomadic, following their food source, the buffalo. Moving house: tepee Kiowa, Wichita Caddo
Great Plains had Buffalo, the main food/supply of NOMADIC (moved with the buffalo) tribes like the Comanche & Apache Jumano & Tigua Caddo formed large markets for trade, MATERNAL Leadership, houses are DOMED SHAPED GRASS HUTS Coahuiltecans TEKS 7.9A Geography Tonkawa: Lived near Austin, cannibalism Atakapan: Made DUGOUT CANOES Mountains & Basin
dwellers made homes of adobe mud brick, small farming Karankawa tribes used Gator grease to coat themselves to protect from mosquitoes, TEKS 7.9A Geography TEKS 7.9A Geography Coahuiltecans Karankawa Coahuiltecans Nomadic?
Food Resources TEKS 7.2A, 7.9A Housing Caddo: Lived in Dome-Shaped Huts Caddo Warrior Coastal Plains Tribe -East Texas -Governed with Confederacies -Southeastern Culture Caddo formed large markets for trade MATERNAL (Female Leadership)
TEKS 7.2A, 7.9A Jumano Mountains & Basins are home to several unified tribes located in Western TX. Concho, Jumano, Tigua hunted Small game, berries, corn, few crops sustained these tribes. *All were non-nomadic farming tribes PUEBLOAN In the Mountains & Basins homes were made out of adobe bricks, formed from mud. These homes had an early form of air-conditioning, do you know how they did it? They also had irrigation systems CULTURE Tigua Indians
Concho Mountains & Basins The Concho Indians lived near the present day city of Presidio, TX and were allies with the Jumano tribe. The true name of this tribe is the Chizas, which lived in Texas and Mexico. They hunted rabbits, birds, other small animals. PUEBLOAN CULTURE Chiza Indians In the Concho Valley homes were made out animal skins, grasses and sticks when available. What is life like in this region of Texas? Comancheria Geographic Great Plains of west Texas
Called Comancheria only welcomed the Kiowa Economic Hunted buffalo, elk, and bear and used every part of them to survive Collected wild plants to balance their diet but did not farm Political Lived in bands that were connected through blood relations Each band had a chief chosen by members of the band and a war chief chosen by warriors for each campaign Men are the leaders of the tribes, women do most of the work, as the men hunt &
gather food. In the Great Plains, The Comanche were known as fierce warriors, a nomadic people who followed the Buffalo for their food, clothes & resources including equipment. Apache Nation Geographic From west of San Antonio to the Pecos and Rio Grande River Economic Hunters and gatherers of buffalo, deer, antelope, javelina, and wild turkeys Small gardens that they used to trade with other groups Political
Family bands that were loosely organized under a chief A chief proved himself by age, skill and wisdom Made up of Lipan and Mescalero Apache groups Men are the leaders of the tribes, women do most of the work, as the men hunt & gather food. Apache means literally enemy in Pueblo language. The Apache were very superstitious In the Great Plains, The Apache were known as fierce warriors, a nomadic people who followed the Buffalo for their food, clothes & resources including equipment.
Kiowa Nation They were allied with the Wichita Tribes They were tall, some 7ft, skilled hunters & warriors Kiowa Tribe lived on the High Plains sub region of the Great Plains in far NW Texas. They were nomadic, hunting the buffalo as a food resource by foot in pre-horse times. They had tepees for mobile housing and also developed a calendar for their tribe Kiowa Calendar Geographic Eastern edge of the Great Plains near the Caddos Economic Hunted buffalo as well as farmed fields of corn, beans, and squash.
Traded bows that they made Political Chiefs that led tribes and assisted by sub-chiefs. Adult men were asked for advice and warriors smoked the peace pipe to show they were serious about reaching a good decision. Wichita Nation Matrilineal The Wichita lines descended through their mothers Social/Cultural
Lived in thatched beehive homes much like the Caddos Most dressed of all the Natives Wore clothes made of tanned hides that covered them from their chins to their ankles, and jewelry; Believed in afterlife In the Great Plains, Tattooed around their eyes that made them look like they had raccoon eyes. For this reason they were called Raccoon Eyes. Tonkawa is from the Waco term tonkaweya, meaning
"they all stay together." Each band of Tonkawa elected a chief to lead them under an elected tribal head chief. Clan membership, determined by the mother's clan, was another important aspect of Tonkawa society. Marriage came with little . ceremony, but funeral rites were extensive. Mourning lasted three days and was followed by a four day pipe smoking purification Cannibalism: Tonkawa's celebrated victory with a feast of their fallen enemy (fixed as a stew with potatoes and carrots). Tonkawa
The Tonkawa were a nomadic buffalo hunting people roaming from somewhere around what is now Hillsboro, Texas to the vicinity of present day San Antonio, Texas. They lived in scattered villages of tepees constructed from buffalo hides or arbors made from brush and grass. They ate most kinds of small game, fish and shellfish. They excepted the coyote and wolf from their diet for religious reasons. They collected nuts (especially pecans), herbs, acorns and fruits to supplement their meats. They even attempted some farming Atakapan Geographic Southeast Texas From Galveston Bay as far north as present day Huntsville Economic Fished, hunted and gathered food
throughout East Texas MAN EATERS Traded for things they needed and could not hunt or gather for themselves Political Small bands with no overall chief Social/Cultural Lived in small lodges that were made of tree branches covered with hides Men wore animal hides and women wore skirts of Spanish moss and grasses Tattooed and painted their bodies; THEY ATE THEIR ENEMIES!!! Used alligator oil to repel mosquitoes because of this they smelled The People of Natural Texas Is there a relationship between where the population of Texas is and the regions of Texas?
Comanche, & Apache were fierce warriors and skilled horsemen Kiowa, Wichita So What? Great Plains had Buffalo, the main food/supply of NOMADIC (moved with the buffalo) tribes like the Comanche & Apache Caddo Caddo formed large markets for trade, MATERNAL Leadership, houses are DOMED
SHAPED GRASS HUTS Coahuiltecans Jumano & Tigua : Modern Cities Mountains & Basin dwellers made homes of adobe mud brick, small farming What is the relationship between where Texas Native Americans lived and where Texans live today? Why is the lifestyle of Southeastern
Native Americans different than those that live on the Plains? Karankawa tribes used Gator grease to coat themselves to protect from mosquitoes, SPIDEY DIAGRAM SPIDEY DIAGRAM Place the Native Texans in the boxes according to their region. Give facts about each tribes practices KEY WORD/MAIN IDEA Robertson
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