Methods Method Possible Effect Changing narrative perspective and

Methods Method Possible Effect Changing narrative perspective and

Methods Method Possible Effect Changing narrative perspective and flashback Allows the reader to see characters and events from different perspectives therefore adds authenticity. For example, Enfield and Lanyon both comment on the indefinable deformity of Hyde. The mystery is structured so that the reader knows the outcome before the dramatic revelations of Jekylls account in Chapter 10. We are told the story from the viewpoints of Utterson, Lanyon and Jekyll. Use of documents These are used to add a sense of mystery and intrigue. We are aware they hold secrets. The will and the letters of Lanyon and Jekyll allow the narrative to be told in the first person from a unique perspective at various times. Irony In when we would expect the opposite. Fitting in with themes of repression and duality. Irony in Jekyll seeking to separate good and bad in human nature but unleashes pure evil, not goodness. Factual, dispassionate style Reflects idea of Victorian repression. Much of the horror of the novel is left to the imagination of the reader and characters emotions are seen in documents not dialogue. Repetition

Key ideas and themes are reinforced through repetition of symbolic ideas and language, for example referring to Hyde as ape like suggests the idea of primitive man and an unevolved being (Darwinism) Sensory description Sounds are used in particular to build atmosphere. Gothic references/ setting The isolation of the central character, the use of setting and frequent references to night, darkness, the supernatural and the devil all contribute to the gothic genre. Pathetic Fallacy The weather is used to reflect ideas in the text and the emotions of the characters. In particular fog is used to convey the idea of obscuring the truth and confusion. The reference to the pale moon could mirror Jekylls weakness, the moon is also linked to insanity and the concept of purgatory. Methods Contrast / juxtaposition This is at the heart of the novel through the juxtaposition of Jekyll and Hyde, but we also see contrast between characters such as Utterson and Enfield and in the setting of the London for dramatic effect. Imagery - metaphor, simile, personification Patterns e.g. biblical, imprisonment In particular personification, simile and metaphor are used in the passages of description which build a vivid picture. Imagery may be linked to the ideas of mystery, obscurity and illumination such as the use of light and dark, or to reflect a sense of imprisonment or repression, or to convey the animalistic qualities of Hyde.

Word classes e.g. violent/ aggressive verbs Use of adjectives/ adverbs Consider the use of words to describe the actions of Hyde and his appearance in particular. Also, how a sense of violence is mirrored in descriptions of setting e.g. whipped. Semantic fields e.g. violence, repression, religion Patterns in the use of diction build thematic links throughout the text. Dialogue Reveals the dynamics in relationships between characters and can reveal contrast e.g. in the conversation between Hyde and Utterson. Can also create a sense of realism. Alliteration Often used to create a harsh, unpleasant effect, or used to affect the rhythm/ pace of the sentence. Symbolism/ motif Symbolism: an object, action or state that can represent ideas and events of wider importance e.g. the repeated reference to darkness. Motifs are a repeated symbolic representation linked to a main theme. Usually, its a physical object.. Motifs recur throughout a work as opposed to only appearing once, and they must hold significance to the plot e.g. the door, the mirror.

The Descent of Man, published in 1871, is the first of Darwins published works to contain the word evolution. Jekyll and Hyde explores the idea of devolution Lombroso, atavism and theories of criminality In biology, an atavism is an evolutionary throwback, such as traits reappearing that had disappeared generations before. Before the 19th Century, discussion of crime and criminals was conducted entirely in moral and philosophical terms. It was only in 1876 when the Italian anthropologist Cesare Towards the end of the 19th century, theories of evolution were the basis of fears of social, racial and cultural Lomboso published his theories of criminal behaviour that a degeneration and decline. Evolution was countered by tradition of physiological theories of criminality emerged. He frightening examples of devolution. Stevensons erudite, suggested that there was a distinct biological class of people gentlemanly and rather bored Jekyll turns into the beastly Hyde, who is cruel, lustful and murderous. Hydes squat, ape- that were prone to criminality. These people exhibited like body, his dark, hairy hands, and his energy and appetite atavistic (i.e. primitive) features; Lombroso suggested that all signal his primitive state. they were throwbacks who had biological characteristics from Viewed on a simple level, Dr Jekyll is a good man, much admired in his profession. Mr Hyde, meanwhile, is evil. He is a an earlier stage of human development that manifested as a murderer; a monster who tramples upon a small girl simply tendency to commit crimes. Lombroso claimed that criminal because she happens to be in his way. On a deeper level, types were distinguishable from the general population however, the comparison is not merely between good and evil because they looked different. The principle markers of

but between evolution and degeneration. Throughout the narrative Mr Hydes physical appearance provokes disgust. He criminality were a strong jaw and a heavy brow. However, he is described as ape-like, troglodytic and hardly human (ch. also suggested that different types of criminal had different 2). As Mr Enfield, a well-known man about town and distant features, so murderers had bloodshot eyes and curly hair, relative of Jekylls friend Mr Utterson, observes There is something wrong with his appearance; something displeasing, whilst sex offenders had thick lips and protruding ears. something downright detestable (ch. 1). Some 15 years In Criminal Man (1876) Lombroso used modern Darwinian before Jekyll and Hyde, Charles Darwin had published The Descent of Man (1871), a book in which he concluded that evolutionary theories to prove the inferiority of criminals to humankind had descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped honest people, of women to men, and of blacks to whites, which was itself probably derived from an ancient marsupial thereby reinforcing the prevailing politics of sexual and racial animal. Such a nightmarish biological lineage that denied the hierarchy of this era. He was particularly interested in the specialness of humans, feeds into many late-Victorian Gothic novels. Draculas ability to transform into the shape of a wolf or physical attributes of criminalsthe size of their skulls, the a bat is one example. Stevensons portrayal of Hyde works in shape of their nosesbut he also studied the criminals a similar fashion. Mr Hyde is regarded as physically detestable but perhaps only because he subconsciously reminds those he various forms of self-expression, such as letters, graffiti, encounters of their own distant evolutionary inheritance. When drawings, and tattoos. These ideas are evident in Stevensons Dr Jekylls medical colleague, Dr Lanyon, witnesses Hyde portrayal of Hyde as troglodyte and ape like. There is also the transform back into Jekyll, the knowledge that the ugly, suggestion in his defacing of Jekylls religious works. murderous beast exists within the respectable Victorian scientist sends him first to his sick-bed, and then to an early grave. Freudian theory in Jekyll and Hyde

Mr. Hyde is the perfect id. By definition, the id is driven by pure instinct, feeling no remorse about its actions whether they be good or bad. As described by Dr. Jekyll, Mr. Hyde is the " animal within me," which goes along with the theory that the Id runs on instinct, wanting everything for itself and not caring if it harms others in the process of acquiring what it wants. Mr. Hyde inflicts pain and suffering on others in order to indulge his baser instincts, for a perversity of pleasure in the freedom of lawlessness. In Jekyll and Mr. Hyde the Superego is represented by the strict expectations placed on gentlemen in Victorian society. The expectation of people in England at the time was to suppress desires that seemed unholy, vulgar or inappropriate. In a devoutly religious society earthly desires such as lust and even gluttony were to be oppressed because it was considered unbecoming in a Christian gentleman. Utterson reflects the austere lifestyle and self moderation that was seen as socially commendable. Dr. Jekyll represents the ego because he creates the concoction that turns him into Mr. Hyde but when he changes back into Dr. Jekyll he does good deeds such as donating to charity and following religion. Like the ego, he satisfies the id's need for pleasure then does morally upstanding acts to satisfy the superego's need to be perfect in the eyes of the outside world. The Gothic Stevensons Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) is a late-Victorian variation on ideas first raised in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein (1818). Stevensons monster, however, is not artificially created from stitchedtogether body parts, but rather emerges fully formed from the dark side of the human personality. In the story Dr Jekyll, an admired member of the professional Victorian middle-classes, conducts a series of scientific experiments which unleash from his own psyche the bestial and ape-like Mr Hyde (ch. 10). Gothic fiction had

examined the idea of the sinister alter ego or double before on many occasions but Stevensons genius with Jekyll and Hyde was to show the dual nature not only of one man but also of society in general. Throughout the story, respectability is doubled with degradation; abandon with restraint; honesty with duplicity. Even London itself has a dual nature, with its respectable streets existing side-by-side with areas notorious for their squalor and violence. Double-consciousness By literally splitting the consciousness of Dr Jekyll into two the decent side that attempts, and largely succeeds, in suppressing desires that run contrary to the dictates of society; and the amoral side that runs riot in an attempt to gratify animal desire Stevenson explores in a heightened fashion the battles played out in every one of us. As Dr Jekyll observes I saw that, of the two natures that contended in the field of my consciousness, even if I could rightly be said to be either, it was only because I was radically both (ch. 10). Through Hyde, the respectable Dr Jekyll is freed from the restraints imposed by society my devil had been long caged, he came out roaring (ch. 10). In his confession at the end of the book, Jekyll observes that, ultimately, he will have to choose between being Dr Jekyll or Mr Hyde. To become the latter would mean giving up on noble aspirations and being forever despised and friendless. (ch. 10) To become Jekyll, however, means giving up the sensual and disreputable appetites he can indulge as Hyde. In spite of the curious circumstances of his own case it is, as the melancholy Jekyll observes, a struggle and debate as old and commonplace as man (ch. 10). Hints of Homosexuality/ Gender In an early draft of the book, Stevenson has Dr Jekyll confess From an early ageI became in secret the slave of certain appetites. Such an observation inevitably leads critics to consider Stevenson was making an underlying link to homosexuality. Why would the respectable Jekyll grant the vile Hyde free access to his house, let alone alter his will so that in the event of his death or disappearance Hyde will inherit? For Mr Enfield there can only be one answer: Blackmail, I suppose; an honest man paying through the nose for some of the capers of his youth (ch. 1). Stevenson, because of the era in which he was writing, could not make specific references to homosexuality, but much of

the plot initially hints at Hyde blackmailing Jekyll because of the doctors unorthodox sexual preferences. Homosexuality and blackmail were frequently linked in this period. The Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1885 (the year in which Stevenson was writing his tale), made gross indecency a criminal activity. In practice, the Act was primarily used to prosecute homosexuals. Dr Jekyll is a bachelor indeed the entire story is played out amongst a small circle of unmarried men. Women only feature as minor characters or victims which marginalise their role in the story. London society of the time was dominated by men in positions of power and influence. Religion The Victorian era is famous for being prim and proper, (even though there was a seedy 'underworld' of prostitution, drugs and crime in the 'wrong' parts of town). Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) seemed to disprove creation, and substituted the new idea of 'evolution. Before this the bible was taken literally and society was God fearing based on a principle that being religious protected against crime, poverty and immorality. Fiction and Reality In a macabre twist, events from real life began to overlay themselves upon the narrative. The Whitechapel Murders occurred in the autumn of 1888, two years after the publication of Jekyll and Hyde, and the real murderer and the fictitious Mr Hyde were swiftly paired in the public imagination. Indeed, the murders became so entangled with the story, Richard Mansfield who famously played Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in the stage adaptation produced a year after the publication of the novel, was accused of being the Ripper murderer by a member of the public. When Hyde attacks Sir Danvers Carew he beats him to death with his walking stick, commenting afterwards With a transport of glee, I

mauled the unresisting body, tasting delight from every blow (ch. 10). The ferocity of the attack mirrors the intensity of the Ripper murders. Jekyll and Hyde pointed towards an unpalatable truth. Mr Hyde, with his ape-like appearance conformed to contemporary criminological theory in which delinquents displayed visible traits indicative of their unpalatable natures. Dr Jekyll, however, a large, well-made, smooth-faced man of fifty would not conform to such a theory and yet, as we know, Jekyll and Hyde are one and the same; two faces of a single personality (ch. 3). This leads to the uncomfortable possibility that one could pass a monster such as Jack the Ripper in the street and yet only see a respectable, civilised gentleman exhibiting absolutely no trace of the depraved killer lurking within Jekyll and Hyde and Jack the Ripper. Deacon William Brodie A greatly respected member of Edinburgh's society, William Brodie was a skilful cabinet-maker and a member of the Town Council. However, unknown to most, Brodie had a secret night-time occupation as the leader of a gang of burglars. An extra-curricular activity that was necessary to support his extravagant lifestyle which included two mistresses, numerous children and a gambling habit. It is said that Brodie's bizarre double-life inspired Robert Louis Stevenson, whose father had had furniture made by Brodie. Stevenson included aspects of Brodie's life and character in his story of a split personality, Annotating the extracts Make these extracts the basis of your concentrated revision. Annotate them for methods and thematic links as thoroughly as you can. Annotate your references to the A.O.s: AO1: response to extract/ whole text links use of references and quotations AO2: exploring writers methods (language and structure) using subject terminology focus down to what you could say at word level

explore effects on the reader AO3: consider any links you could make to contextual ideas and perspectives When you have read all of the extracts you should be able to establish links between them for addressing the second half of the question elsewhere in the text. You may wish to identify further extracts in your own copy of the text for close annotation. Learn key quotations from them. When you get into the exam a.Approach the extract in the same way b.Consider which of these extracts you can then make reference to for links to the rest of the text. Key Themes Explore how contrast is presented in this passage and elsewhere in the novel. It chanced on one of these rambles that their way led them down a by-street in a busy quarter of London. The street was small and what is called quiet, but it drove a thriving trade on the week-days. The inhabitants were all doing well, it seemed, and all emulously hoping to do better still, and laying out the surplus of their gains in coquetry; so that the shop fronts stood along that thoroughfare with an air of invitation, like rows of smiling saleswomen. Even on Sunday, when it veiled its more florid charms and lay comparatively empty of passage, the street shone out in contrast to its dingy neighbourhood, like a fire in a forest; and with its freshly painted shutters, well-polished brasses, and general cleanliness and gaiety of note, instantly caught and pleased the eye of the passenger. Two doors from one corner, on the left hand going east, the line was broken by the entry of a court; and just at that point, a certain sinister block of building thrust forward its gable on the street. It was two stories high; showed no window, nothing but a door on the lower story and a blind forehead of discoloured wall on the upper; and bore in every feature, the marks of prolonged and sordid negligence. The door, which was equipped with neither bell nor knocker, was blistered and distained. Tramps slouched into the recess and struck matches on the panels; children kept shop upon the steps; the schoolboy had tried his knife on the mouldings; and for close on a generation, no

one had appeared to drive away these random visitors or to repair their ravages. Explore how Stevenson presents violence in this passage and elsewhere in the novel. "Well, it was this way," returned Mr. Enfield: "I was coming home from some place at the end of the world, about three o'clock of a black winter morning, and my way lay through a part of town where there was literally nothing to be seen but lamps. Street after street, and all the folks asleepstreet after street, all lighted up as if for a procession and all as empty as a churchtill at last I got into that state of mind when a man listens and listens and begins to long for the sight of a policeman. All at once, I saw two figures: one a little man who was stumping along eastward at a good walk, and the other a girl of maybe eight or ten who was running as hard as she was able down a cross street. Well, sir, the two ran into one another naturally enough at the corner; and then came the horrible part of the thing; for the man trampled calmly over the child's body and left her screaming on the ground. It sounds nothing to hear, but it was hellish to see. It wasn't like a man; it was like some damned Juggernaut. I gave a view-halloa, took to my heels, collared my gentleman, and brought him back to where there was already quite a group about the screaming child. He was perfectly cool and made no resistance, but gave me one look, so ugly that it brought out the sweat on me like running. The people who had turned out were the girl's own family; and pretty soon, the doctor, for whom she had been sent, put in his appearance. Well, the child was not much the worse, more frightened, according to the Sawbones; and there you might have supposed would be an end to it. But there was one curious circumstance. I had taken a loathing to my gentleman at first sight. So had the child's family, which was only natural. But the doctor's case was what struck me. He was the usual cut-and-dry apothecary, of no particular age and colour, with a strong Edinburgh accent, and about as emotional as a bagpipe. Well, sir, he was like the rest of us; every time he looked at my prisoner, I saw that Sawbones turn sick and white with the desire to kill him. I knew what was in his mind, just as he knew what was in mine; and killing being out of the question, we did the next best. We told the man we could and would make such a scandal out of this, as should make his name stink from one end of London to the other. If he had any friends or any credit, we undertook that he should lose them. And all the time, as we were pitching it in red hot, we were keeping the women off him as best we could, for they were as wild as harpies. I never saw a circle of such hateful faces; and there was the man in the middle, with a kind of black, sneering coolnessfrightened too, I could see that but carrying it off, sir, really like Satan. 'If you choose to make capital out of this accident,' said he, 'I am naturally helpless. No gentleman but wishes to avoid a scene,' says he. 'Name your figure.' Well, we screwed him up to a hundred pounds for the child's family; he would have clearly liked to stick out; but there was something about the lot of us that meant mischief, and at last he struck. The next thing was to get the money; and where do you think he carried us but to that place with the door? whipped out a key, went in, and presently came back with the matter of ten pounds in gold and a cheque for the balance on Coutts's, drawn payable to bearer and signed with a name that I can't mention, though it's one of the points of my story, but it was a name at least very well known and often printed. The figure was stiff; but the signature was good for more than that, if it was only genuine. I took the liberty of pointing out to my gentleman that the whole business looked apocryphal, and that a man does not, in real life, walk into a cellar door at four in the morning and come out of it with another man's cheque for close upon a hundred

pounds. Explore how Stevenson presents characters in this passage and elsewhere in the novel With that he blew out his candle, put on a great-coat, and set forth in the direction of Cavendish Square, that citadel of medicine, where his friend, the great Dr. Lanyon, had his house and received his crowding patients. "If any one knows, it will be Lanyon," he had thought. The solemn butler knew and welcomed him; he was subjected to no stage of delay, but ushered direct from the door to the dining-room where Dr. Lanyon sat alone over his wine. This was a hearty, healthy, dapper, red-faced gentleman, with a shock of hair prematurely white, and a boisterous and decided manner. At sight of Mr. Utterson, he sprang up from his chair and welcomed him with both hands. The geniality, as was the way of the man, was somewhat theatrical to the eye; but it reposed on genuine feeling. For these two were old friends, old mates both at school and college, both thorough respecters of themselves and of each other, and, what does not always follow, men who thoroughly enjoyed each other's company. After a little rambling talk, the lawyer led up to the subject which so disagreeably pre-occupied his mind. "I suppose, Lanyon," said he "you and I must be the two oldest friends that Henry Jekyll has?" "I wish the friends were younger," chuckled Dr. Lanyon. "But I suppose we are. And what of that? I see little of him now." "Indeed?" said Utterson. "I thought you had a bond of common interest." "We had," was the reply. "But it is more than ten years since Henry Jekyll became too fanciful for me. He began to go wrong, wrong in mind; and though of course I continue to take an interest in him for old sake's sake, as they say, I see and I have seen devilish little of the man. Such unscientific balderdash," added the doctor, flushing suddenly purple, "would have estranged Damon and Pythias. This little spirit of temper was somewhat of a relief to Mr. Utterson. "They have only differed on some point of science," he thought; and being a man of no scientific passions (except in the matter of conveyancing), he even added: "It is nothing worse than that!" He gave his friend a few seconds to recover his composure, and then approached the question he had come to put. "Did you ever come across a protege of hisone Hyde?" he asked. "Hyde?" repeated Lanyon. "No. Never heard of him. Since my time." That was the amount of information that the lawyer carried back with him to the great, dark bed on which he tossed to and fro, until the small hours of the morning began to grow large. It was a night of little ease to his toiling mind, toiling in mere darkness and besieged by questions. Six o'clock struck on the bells of the church that was so conveniently near to Mr. Utterson's dwelling, and still he was digging at the problem. Hitherto it had touched him on the intellectual side alone; but now his imagination also was engaged, or rather enslaved; and as he lay and tossed in the gross darkness of the night and the curtained room, Explore how Stevenson presents setting to create an atmosphere of mystery in this extract and elsewhere in the novel.

From that time forward, Mr. Utterson began to haunt the door in the by-street of shops. In the morning before office hours, at noon when business was plenty, and time scarce, at night under the face of the fogged city moon, by all lights and at all hours of solitude or concourse, the lawyer was to be found on his chosen post. "If he be Mr. Hyde," he had thought, "I shall be Mr. Seek." And at last his patience was rewarded. It was a fine dry night; frost in the air; the streets as clean as a ballroom floor; the lamps, unshaken, by any wind, drawing a regular pattern of light and shadow. By ten o'clock, when the shops were closed, the by-street was very solitary and, in spite of the low growl of London from all round, very silent. Small sounds carried far; domestic sounds out of the houses were clearly audible on either side of the roadway; and the rumour of the approach of any passenger preceded him by a long time. Mr. Utterson had been some minutes at his post, when he was aware of an odd, light footstep drawing near. In the course of his nightly patrols, he had long grown accustomed to the quaint effect with which the footfalls of a single person, while he is still a great way off, suddenly spring out distinct from the vast hum and clatter of the city. Yet his attention had never before been so sharply and decisively arrested; and it was with a strong, superstitious prevision of success that he withdrew into the entry of the court. The steps drew swiftly nearer, and swelled out suddenly louder as they turned the end of the street. The lawyer, looking forth from the entry, could soon see what manner of man he had to deal with. He was small and very plainly dressed, and the look of him, even at that distance, went somehow strongly against the watcher's inclination. But he made straight for the door, crossing the roadway to save time; and as he came, he drew a key from his pocket like one approaching home. Mr. Utterson stepped out and touched him on the shoulder as he passed. "Mr. Hyde, I think?" Mr. Hyde shrank back with a hissing intake of the breath. But his fear was only momentary; and though he did not look the lawyer in the face, he answered coolly enough: "That is my name. What do you want?" "I see you are going in," returned the lawyer. "I am an old friend of Dr. Jekyll'sMr. Utterson of Gaunt Streetyou must have heard my name; and meeting you so conveniently, I thought you might admit me." "You will not find Dr. Jekyll; he is from home," replied Mr. Hyde, blowing in the key. And then suddenly, but still without looking up, "How did you know me?" he asked. "On your side," said Mr. Utterson, "will you do me a favour?" "With pleasure," replied the other. "What shall it be?" Explore how Stevenson presents brutality in this passage and elsewhere in the novel. NEARLY a year later, in the month of October, 18-, London was startled by a crime of singular ferocity and rendered all the more notable by the high position of the victim. The details were few and startling. A maid servant living alone in a house not far from the river, had gone up-stairs to bed about eleven. Although a fog rolled over the city in the small hours, the early part of the night was cloudless, and the lane, which the maid's window overlooked, was brilliantly lit by the full moon. It seems she was romantically given, for she sat down upon her box, which stood

immediately under the window, and fell into a dream of musing. Never (she used to say, with streaming tears, when she narrated that experience), never had she felt more at peace with all men or thought more kindly of the world. And as she so sat she became aware of an aged and beautiful gentleman with white hair, drawing near along the lane; and advancing to meet him, another and very small gentleman, to whom at first she paid less attention. When they had come within speech (which was just under the maid's eyes) the older man bowed and accosted the other with a very pretty manner of politeness. It did not seem as if the subject of his address were of great importance; indeed, from his pointing, it sometimes appeared as if he were only inquiring his way; but the moon shone on his face as he spoke, and the girl was pleased to watch it, it seemed to breathe such an innocent and old-world kindness of disposition, yet with something high too, as of a well-founded self-content. Presently her eye wandered to the other, and she was surprised to recognise in him a certain Mr. Hyde, who had once visited her master and for whom she had conceived a dislike. He had in his hand a heavy cane, with which he was trifling; but he answered never a word, and seemed to listen with an ill-contained impatience. And then all of a sudden he broke out in a great flame of anger, stamping with his foot, brandishing the cane, and carrying on (as the maid described it) like a madman. The old gentleman took a step back, with the air of one very much surprised and a trifle hurt; and at that Mr. Hyde broke out of all bounds and clubbed him to the earth. And next moment, with apelike fury, he was trampling his victim under foot and hailing down a storm of blows, under which the bones were audibly shattered and the body jumped upon the roadway. At the horror of these sights and sounds, the maid fainted. It was two o'clock when she came to herself and called for the police. The murderer was gone long ago; but there lay his victim in the middle of the lane, incredibly mangled. The stick with which the deed had been done, although it was of some rare and very tough and heavy wood, had broken in the middle under the stress of this insensate cruelty; and one splintered half had rolled in the neighbouring gutterthe other, without doubt, had been carried away by the murderer. A purse and a gold watch were found upon the victim: but no cards or papers, except a sealed and stamped envelope, which he had been probably carrying to the post, and which bore the name and address of Mr. Utterson. Explore how Stevenson creates a vivid sense of place in this passage and elsewhere in the novel It was by this time about nine in the morning, and the first fog of the season. A great chocolate-coloured pall lowered over heaven, but the wind was continually charging and routing these embattled vapours; so that as the cab crawled from street to street, Mr. Utterson beheld a marvellous number of degrees and hues of twilight; for here it would be dark like the back-end of evening; and there would be a glow of a rich, lurid brown, like the light of some strange conflagration; and here, for a moment, the fog would be quite broken up, and a haggard shaft of daylight would glance in between the swirling wreaths. The dismal quarter of Soho seen under these changing glimpses, with its muddy ways, and slatternly passengers, and its lamps, which had never been extinguished or had been kindled afresh to combat this mournful re-invasion of darkness, seemed, in the lawyer's eyes, like a district of some city in a nightmare. The thoughts of his mind, besides, were of the gloomiest dye; and when he glanced at the companion of his drive, he

was conscious of some touch of that terror of the law and the law's officers, which may at times assail the most honest. As the cab drew up before the address indicated, the fog lifted a little and showed him a dingy street, a gin palace, a low French eating-house, a shop for the retail of penny numbers and twopenny salads, many ragged children huddled in the doorways, and many women of different nationalities passing out, key in hand, to have a morning glass; and the next moment the fog settled down again upon that part, as brown as umber, and cut him off from his blackguardly surroundings. This was the home of Henry Jekyll's favourite; of a man who was heir to a quarter of a million sterling. An ivory-faced and silvery-haired old woman opened the door. She had an evil face, smoothed by hypocrisy; but her manners were excellent. Yes, she said, this was Mr. Hyde's, but he was not at home; he had been in that night very late, How does Stevenson create a sense of intrigue in this extract and elsewhere in the novel? Presently after, he sat on one side of his own hearth, with Mr. Guest, his head clerk, upon the other, and midway between, at a nicely calculated distance from the fire, a bottle of a particular old wine that had long dwelt unsunned in the foundations of his house. The fog still slept on the wing above the drowned city, where the lamps glimmered like carbuncles; and through the muffle and smother of these fallen clouds, the procession of the town's life was still rolling in through the great arteries with a sound as of a mighty wind. But the room was gay with firelight. In the bottle the acids were long ago resolved; the imperial dye had softened with time, As the colour grows richer in stained windows; and the glow of hot autumn afternoons on hillside vineyards was ready to be set free and to disperse the fogs of London. Insensibly the lawyer melted. There was no man from whom he kept fewer secrets than Mr. Guest; and he was not always sure that he kept as many as he meant. Guest had often been on business to the doctor's; he knew Poole; he could scarce have failed to hear of Mr. Hyde's familiarity about the house; he might draw conclusions: was it not as well, then, that he should see a letter which put that mystery to rights? and above all since Guest, being a great student and critic of handwriting, would consider the step natural and obliging? The clerk, besides, was a man of counsel; he would scarce read so strange a document without dropping a remark; and by that remark Mr. Utterson might shape his future course. "This is a sad business about Sir Danvers," he said. "Yes, sir, indeed. It has elicited a great deal of public feeling," returned Guest. "The man, of course, was mad." "I should like to hear your views on that," replied Utterson. "I have a document here in his handwriting; it is between ourselves, for I scarce know what to do about it; it is an ugly business at the best. But there it is; quite in your way a murderer's autograph." Guest's eyes brightened, and he sat down at once and studied it with passion. "No, sir," he said: "not mad; but it is an odd hand."

Explore how Stevenson develops the themes of repression and Victorian gentleman in this passage and elsewhere in the novel. As soon as he got home, Utterson sat down and wrote to Jekyll, complaining of his exclusion from the house, and asking the cause of this unhappy break with Lanyon; and the next day brought him a long answer, often very pathetically worded, and sometimes darkly mysterious in drift. The quarrel with Lanyon was incurable. "I do not blame our old friend," Jekyll wrote, "but I share his view that we must never meet. I mean from henceforth to lead a life of extreme seclusion; you must not be surprised, nor must you doubt my friendship, if my door is often shut even to you. You must suffer me to go my own dark way. I have brought on myself a punishment and a danger that I cannot name. If I am the chief of sinners, I am the chief of sufferers also. I could not think that this earth contained a place for sufferings and terrors so unmanning; and you can do but one thing, Utterson, to lighten this destiny, and that is to respect my silence." Utterson was amazed; the dark influence of Hyde had been withdrawn, the doctor had returned to his old tasks and amities; a week ago, the prospect had smiled with every promise of a cheerful and an honoured age; and now in a moment, friendship, and peace of mind, and the whole tenor of his life were wrecked. So great and unprepared a change pointed to madness; but in view of Lanyon's manner and words, there must lie for it some deeper ground. A week afterwards Dr. Lanyon took to his bed, and in something less than a fortnight he was dead. The night after the funeral, at which he had been sadly affected, Utterson locked the door of his business room, and sitting there by the light of a melancholy candle, drew out and set before him an envelope addressed by the hand and sealed with the seal of his dead friend. "PRIVATE: for the hands of G. J. Utterson ALONE and in case of his predecease to be destroyed unread," so it was emphatically superscribed; and the lawyer dreaded to behold the contents. "I have buried one friend to-day," he thought: "what if this should cost me another?" And then he condemned the fear as a disloyalty, and broke the seal. Within there was another enclosure, likewise sealed, and marked upon the cover as "not to be opened till the death or disappearance of Dr. Henry Jekyll." Utterson could not trust his eyes. Yes, it was disappearance; here again, as in the mad will which he had long ago restored to its author, here again were the idea of a disappearance and the name of Henry Jekyll bracketed. But in the will, that idea had sprung from the sinister suggestion of the man Hyde; it was set there with a purpose all too plain and horrible. Written by the hand of Lanyon, what should it mean? A great curiosity came on the trustee, to disregard the prohibition and dive at once to the bottom of these mysteries; but professional honour and faith to his dead friend were stringent obligations; and the packet slept in the inmost corner of his private safe. How is setting and atmosphere developed in this passage and elsewhere in the novel? It was a wild, cold, seasonable night of March, with a pale moon, lying on her back as though the wind had tilted her, and a flying wrack of the most diaphanous and lawny texture. The wind made

talking difficult, and flecked the blood into the face. It seemed to have swept the streets unusually bare of passengers, besides; for Mr. Utterson thought he had never seen that part of London so deserted. He could have wished it otherwise; never in his life had he been conscious of so sharp a wish to see and touch his fellow-creatures; for struggle as he might, there was borne in upon his mind a crushing anticipation of calamity. The square, when they got there, was all full of wind and dust, and the thin trees in the garden were lashing themselves along the railing. Poole, who had kept all the way a pace or two ahead, now pulled up in the middle of the pavement, and in spite of the biting weather, took off his hat and mopped his brow with a red pocket-handkerchief. But for all the hurry of his coming, these were not the dews of exertion that he wiped away, but the moisture of some strangling anguish; for his face was white and his voice, when he spoke, harsh and broken. "Well, sir," he said, "here we are, and God grant there be nothing wrong." "Amen, Poole," said the lawyer. Thereupon the servant knocked in a very guarded manner; the door was opened on the chain; and a voice asked from within, "Is that you, Poole?" "It's all right," said Poole. "Open the door." The hall, when they entered it, was brightly lighted up; the fire was built high; and about the hearth the whole of the servants, men and women, stood huddled together like a flock of sheep. At the sight of Mr. Utterson, the housemaid broke into hysterical whimpering; and the cook, crying out, "Bless God! it's Mr. Utterson," ran forward as if to take him in her arms. How are suffering and isolation of the individual developed in this passage and elsewhere in the novel? The scud had banked over the moon, and it was now quite dark. The wind, which only broke in puffs and draughts into that deep well of building, tossed the light of the candle to and fro about their steps, until they came into the shelter of the theatre, where they sat down silently to wait. London hummed solemnly all around; but nearer at hand, the stillness was only broken by the sounds of a footfall moving to and fro along the cabinet floor. "So it will walk all day, sir," whispered Poole; "ay, and the better part of the night. Only when a new sample comes from the chemist, there's a bit of a break. Ah, it's an ill conscience that's such an enemy to rest! Ah, sir, there's blood foully shed in every step of it! But hark again, a little closerput your heart in your ears, Mr. Utterson, and tell me, is that the doctor's foot?" The steps fell lightly and oddly, with a certain swing, for all they went so slowly; it was different indeed from the heavy creaking tread of Henry Jekyll. Utterson sighed. "Is there never anything else?" he asked. Poole nodded. "Once," he said. "Once I heard it weeping!" "Weeping? how that?" said the lawyer, conscious of a sudden chill of horror. "Weeping like a woman or a lost soul," said the butler. "I came away with that upon my heart, that I could have wept too." But now the ten minutes drew to an end. Poole disinterred the axe from under a stack of packing straw; the candle was set

upon the nearest table to light them to the attack; and they drew near with bated breath to where that patient foot was still going up and down, up and down, in the quiet of the night. "Jekyll," cried Utterson, with a loud voice, "I demand to see you." He paused a moment, but there came no reply. "I give you fair warning, our suspicions are aroused, and I must and shall see you," he resumed; "if not by fair means, then by foul! if not of your consent, then by brute force!" "Utterson," said the voice, "for God's sake, have mercy!" "Ah, that's not Jekyll's voiceit's Hyde's!" cried Utterson. "Down with the door, Poole!" Poole swung the axe over his shoulder; the blow shook the building, and the red baize door leaped against the lock and hinges. A dismal screech, as of mere animal terror, rang from the cabinet. Up went the axe again, and again the panels crashed and the frame bounded; four times the blow fell; but the wood was tough and the fittings were of excellent workmanship; and it was not until the fifth, that the lock burst in sunder and the wreck of the door fell inwards on the carpet. How does Stevenson present the character of Hyde in this passage and elsewhere in the novel? Twelve o'clock had scarce rung out over London, ere the knocker sounded very gently on the door. I went myself at the summons, and found a small man crouching against the pillars of the portico. "Are you come from Dr. Jekyll?" I asked. He told me "yes" by a constrained gesture; and when I had bidden him enter, he did not obey me without a searching backward glance into the darkness of the square. There was a policeman not far off, advancing with his bull's eye open; and at the sight, I thought my visitor started and made greater haste. These particulars struck me, I confess, disagreeably; and as I followed him into the bright light of the consultingroom, I kept my hand ready on my weapon. Here, at last, I had a chance of clearly seeing him. I had never set eyes on him before, so much was certain. He was small, as I have said; I was struck besides with the shocking expression of his face, with his remarkable combination of great muscular activity and great apparent debility of constitution, andlast but not least with the odd, subjective disturbance caused by his neighbourhood. This bore some resemblance to incipient rigour, and was accompanied by a marked sinking of the pulse. At the time, I set it down to some idiosyncratic, personal distaste, and merely wondered at the acuteness of the symptoms; but I have since had reason to believe the cause to lie much deeper in the nature of man, and to turn on some nobler hinge than the principle of hatred. This person (who had thus, from the first moment of his entrance, struck in me what I can only describe as a disgustful curiosity) was dressed in a fashion that would have made an ordinary person laughable; his clothes, that is to say, although they were of rich and sober fabric, were enormously too large for him in every measurementthe trousers hanging on his legs and rolled up to keep them from the ground, the waist of the coat below his haunches, and the collar sprawling wide upon his shoulders. Strange to relate, this ludicrous accoutrement was far from moving me to laughter. Rather, as there was something abnormal and misbegotten in the very essence of the creature that now faced me something seizing, surprising, and revoltingthis fresh

disparity seemed but to fit in with and to reinforce it; so that to my interest in the man's nature and character, there was added a curiosity as to his origin, his life, his fortune and status in the world How does Stevenson present the idea of duality in this passage and elsewhere in the novel? That night I had come to the fatal cross-roads. Had I approached my discovery in a more noble spirit, had I risked the experiment while under the empire of generous or pious aspirations, all must have been otherwise, and from these agonies of death and birth, I had come forth an angel instead of a fiend. The drug had no discriminating action; it was neither diabolical nor divine; it but shook the doors of the prison-house of my disposition; and like the captives of Philippi, that which stood within ran forth. At that time my virtue slumbered; my evil, kept awake by ambition, was alert and swift to seize the occasion; and the thing that was projected was Edward Hyde. Hence, although I had now two characters as well as two appearances, one was wholly evil, and the other was still the old Henry Jekyll, that incongruous compound of whose reformation and improvement I had already learned to despair. The movement was thus wholly toward the worse. Even at that time, I had not yet conquered my aversion to the dryness of a life of study. I would still be merrily disposed at times; and as my pleasures were (to say the least) undignified, and I was not only well known and highly considered, but growing toward the elderly man, this incoherency of my life was daily growing more unwelcome. It was on this side that my new power tempted me until I fell in slavery. I had but to drink the cup, to doff at once the body of the noted professor, and to assume, like a thick cloak, that of Edward Hyde. I smiled at the notion; it seemed to me at the time to be humorous; and I made my preparations with the most studious care. I took and furnished that house in Soho, to which Hyde was tracked by the police; and engaged as housekeeper a creature whom I well knew to be silent and unscrupulous. On the other side, I announced to my servants that a Mr. Hyde (whom I described) was to have full liberty and power about my house in the square; and to parry mishaps, I even called and made myself a familiar object, in my second character. I next drew up that will to which you so much objected; so that if anything befell me in the person of Dr. Jekyll, I could enter on that of Edward Hyde without pecuniary loss. And thus fortified, as I supposed, on every side, I began to profit by the strange immunities of my position. Men have before hired bravos to transact their crimes, while their own person and reputation sat under shelter. I was the first that ever did so for his pleasures. I was the first that could thus plod in the public eye with a load of genial respectability, and in a moment, like a schoolboy, strip off these lendings and spring headlong into the sea of liberty. But for me, in my impenetrable mantle, the safety was complete. Think of itI did not even exist! Let me but escape into my laboratory door, give me but a second or two to mix and swallow the draught that I had always standing ready; and whatever he had done, Edward Hyde would pass away like the stain of breath upon a mirror; and there in his stead, quietly at home, trimming the midnight lamp in his study, a man who could afford to laugh at suspicion, would be Henry Jekyll.

Explore how Stevenson presents conflict in this extract and elsewhere in the novel. Between these two, I now felt I had to choose. My two natures had memory in common, but all other faculties were most unequally shared between them. Jekyll (who was composite) now with the most sensitive apprehensions, now with a greedy gusto, projected and shared in the pleasures and adventures of Hyde; but Hyde was indifferent to Jekyll, or but remembered him as the mountain bandit remembers the cavern in which he conceals himself from pursuit. Jekyll had more than a father's interest; Hyde had more than a son's indifference. To cast in my lot with Jekyll, was to die to those appetites which I had long secretly indulged and had of late begun to pamper. To cast it in with Hyde, was to die to a thousand interests and aspirations, and to become, at a blow and for ever, despised and friendless. The bargain might appear unequal; but there was still another consideration in the scales; for while Jekyll would suffer smartingly in the fires of abstinence, Hyde would be not even conscious of all that he had lost. Strange as my circumstances were, the terms of this debate are as old and commonplace as man; much the same inducements and alarms cast the die for any tempted and trembling sinner; and it fell out with me, as it falls with so vast a majority of my fellows, that I chose the better part and was found wanting in the strength to keep to it. Yes, I preferred the elderly and discontented doctor, surrounded by friends and cherishing honest hopes; and bade a resolute farewell to the liberty, the comparative youth, the light step, leaping impulses and secret pleasures, that I had enjoyed in the disguise of Hyde. I made this choice perhaps with some unconscious reservation, for I neither gave up the house in Soho, nor destroyed the clothes of Edward Hyde, which still lay ready in my cabinet. For two months, however, I was true to my determination; for two months I led a life of such severity as I had never before attained to, and enjoyed the compensations of an approving conscience. But time began at last to obliterate the freshness of my alarm; the praises of conscience began to grow into a thing of course; I began to be tortured with throes and longings, as of Hyde struggling after freedom; and at last, in an hour of moral weakness, I once again compounded and swallowed the transforming draught. I do not suppose that, when a drunkard reasons with himself upon his vice, he is once out of five hundred times affected by the dangers that he runs through his brutish, physical insensibility; neither had I, long as I had considered my position, made enough allowance for the complete moral insensibility and insensate readiness to evil, which were the leading characters of Edward Hyde. Yet it was by these that I was punished. My devil had been long caged, he came out roaring. I was conscious, even when I took the draught, of a more unbridled, a more furious propensity to ill. It must have been this, I suppose, that stirred in my soul that tempest of impatience with which I listened to the civilities of my unhappy victim; I declare, at least, before God, no man morally sane could have been guilty of that crime upon so pitiful a provocation; and that I struck in no more reasonable spirit than that in which a sick child may break a plaything

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