Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G
Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G Office hours: Tu 12-1:30 and by apt. Email: [email protected] Class: T 1:30-4:20 Room 2210 Intelligence The Intelligence Challenge In todays class, were going to discuss the topic of
intelligence. However, when looking at intelligence, we run into a problem that we havent run into during previous topics; Namely, what does it mean to be intelligent? Group activity: In groups of 3 to 4, please list 5 different situations where people can display actions that are intelligent AND dull and detail what an intelligent and dull action would be in these situations. Defining Intelligence As our examples
revealed, intelligence is multifaceted. When studying the topic, we often consider multiple aspects of intelligence and try to incorporate as many of them into the definition of the term as we can. Intelligence the ability to solve
Creativity? Interpersonal skills? Memory capacity? Vocabulary? So How Can We Test This? If were going to measure how intelligence grows and changes with development, we need to find a
way to objectively measure intelligence. Intelligence tests established techniques that allows researchers to compare an individual to their age and culture equivalent peers in order to determine how much more or less intelligent he/she is. The First Intelligence Test Alfred Binet
One of the first psychologists to scientifically explore intelligence In 1904, he was tasked by the French Ministry of Education to find a way to detect children that would never profit from traditional schools To do this, he designed a series of tests These tests began by looking at basic skills in children (point to your toes) and moved on to more complex skills when comparing adolescents (define justice) Mental age (MA) the age that the childs responses were most indicative of Chronological age (CA) the actual age of the child Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100
The New IQ Tests Since Piaget, researchers have attempted to expand his tests and measure both adults and regular individuals Stanford-Binet IQ test a new IQ tests that measure multiple facets of intelligence across a large range of ages Normally distributed with different calculations (average = 100) Measures fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, and working memory Note: This revised test was created by Lewis Terman at Stanford. Hence the name. They were originally said to measure a persons inborn ability to learn. Termans initial goal was to use the tests to promote his push for eugenics.
The Wechsler Scales David Wechsler developed a series of questions and tasks that allowed researchers to look at intelligence in: Different subscales (verbal skills and performance/ non-verbal skills, working memory, and processing speed) Different age groups (WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and WISC Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(up to 16)) Processing Speed Example
X X O X X O O X O X X O O O X X O O X X O O O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X X X O X O X X O X O O X X X O X O X O X X O X O X O X O X O X O X O O X X X X X O X O O X O O X XX X O X X O O X O X X O O O X X O O X X O O O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X X XO O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X XO O X X XO O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O X O X X O XO X O X O O O X X XO O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X XO O X X XO O O O X X X
Other Ideas About Intelligence Gardners theory of multiple intelligences (16:54) verbal, mathematical, spatial, movement, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, existential Sternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence Analytical, creative, practical Salvoy & Mayers emotional intelligence (EQ) Spearmans general intelligence (g)
Could be the result of an outside factor (health) Fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence based on the ability to learn across all areas of interest (peaks at 20) Crystallized intelligence that is obtained through experience over the lifespan (peaks near end of life) Note: this doesnt address multiple intelligences Where does this lead us in a developmental class? Understanding that there are many different types
of intelligence forces researchers looking at development study changes in multiple versions of intelligence Understanding the different goals and findings of intelligence researchers also lets us look closer at development related problems in intelligence that we find Understanding these theories also helps us better understand the concept of heritability when we examine its relationship with intelligence Understanding the Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness
Individuals that measure having IQs above 130 are arbitrarily defined as gifted Gifted individuals usually excel only in one or two specific areas of intelligence Despite the stereotypes, gifted individuals do not generally appear to display social or personality deficits Savant syndrome exception Giftedness has been liked to both genetics and environment
Understanding the Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation Mental retardation is defined as a limited mental ability Mentally retarded individuals are identified before the age of 18 There are many classifications of mental retardation, based on IQ scores To be defined as mentally retarded, individuals must: Have an IQ below 70 Have difficulty adapting to everyday life
More on Mental Retardation IQs below 50 are usually the product of genetic deficits (we discussed this in one of the first classes) Individuals with IQs between 50 and 70 are defined as having cultural-familial retardation (based on early experience and low stimulation environments) Treatment for mental retardation varies based on an individuals IQ Heritability the proportion of a characteristic that can be attributed
to the genetic makeup of parents Nature the amount of a characteristic (in this case, intelligence) that can be attributed to our genes Nurture the amount of a characteristic that can be attributed to our environment Sibling studies have revealed a very high level of genetic heritability in the area of intelligence This is particularly true when we look
at adult intelligence Returning to Heritability Some New Outlooks on Heritability Recent studies have led us to conclude that environments, especially ones that are significantly different, can also play a big role in intelligence Schooling lapses and decline in intelligence findings The Flynn effect worldwide increases in intelligence
over the past few decades Intervention studies (low IQ, SES, & comm. styles) Another look at these effects The context of culture on how we measure intelligence video More Developmental Concerns: Predictability and Stability Considerable research has shown that intelligence levels of infants are constantly fluctuating
Once reaching childhood, intelligence becomes more stable We have also found in numerous studies that our intelligence (IQs) at these ages is very predictive of our intelligence (IQs) throughout our lives a note on individual differences A Final Concern: Change Just like physical change and other cognitive changes that weve seen before, we see that intelligence follows a set path with respect to
aging as well Reexamining a past idea to understand a new one Remember the Flynn effect? When taking this into account, researchers have come up with some interesting new conclusions about old age and changes in intelligence Late Increases in Crystallized Intelligence Late crystallized intelligence has sometimes been called wisdom or pragmatic knowledge Wisdom expert knowledge about the practical
aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters Note: wisdom has been theoretically linked to age, but we the statistical links that we would expect Wisdom is rare in the elderly, and everyone for that matter Early adulthood and late adolescence is when wisdom seems to emerge Experience and personality factors (openness to experience and creativity) seem to be better predictors of wisdom Wrapping Up Intelligence When looking at development and intelligence, we see that
intelligence measures actually came from our early attempts to understand development We see in our research that our intelligence based abilities grow with age in our early years We also see that our intelligence levels are usually fairly consistent throughout life And finally, we see that some intelligence based responses decline in the later years, but others might even improve Onto Language In the next class well be looking at how our
language skills change throughout our lifetime Read chapter 9 by the next class Also, papers are due at the beginning of class next week Email me if you have any questions about any of this
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