Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G

Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G

Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G Office hours: Tu 12-1:30 and by apt. Email: [email protected] Class: T 1:30-4:20 Room 2210 Intelligence The Intelligence Challenge In todays class, were going to discuss the topic of

intelligence. However, when looking at intelligence, we run into a problem that we havent run into during previous topics; Namely, what does it mean to be intelligent? Group activity: In groups of 3 to 4, please list 5 different situations where people can display actions that are intelligent AND dull and detail what an intelligent and dull action would be in these situations. Defining Intelligence As our examples

revealed, intelligence is multifaceted. When studying the topic, we often consider multiple aspects of intelligence and try to incorporate as many of them into the definition of the term as we can. Intelligence the ability to solve

Creativity? Interpersonal skills? Memory capacity? Vocabulary? So How Can We Test This? If were going to measure how intelligence grows and changes with development, we need to find a

way to objectively measure intelligence. Intelligence tests established techniques that allows researchers to compare an individual to their age and culture equivalent peers in order to determine how much more or less intelligent he/she is. The First Intelligence Test Alfred Binet

One of the first psychologists to scientifically explore intelligence In 1904, he was tasked by the French Ministry of Education to find a way to detect children that would never profit from traditional schools To do this, he designed a series of tests These tests began by looking at basic skills in children (point to your toes) and moved on to more complex skills when comparing adolescents (define justice) Mental age (MA) the age that the childs responses were most indicative of Chronological age (CA) the actual age of the child Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100

The New IQ Tests Since Piaget, researchers have attempted to expand his tests and measure both adults and regular individuals Stanford-Binet IQ test a new IQ tests that measure multiple facets of intelligence across a large range of ages Normally distributed with different calculations (average = 100) Measures fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial reasoning, and working memory Note: This revised test was created by Lewis Terman at Stanford. Hence the name. They were originally said to measure a persons inborn ability to learn. Termans initial goal was to use the tests to promote his push for eugenics.

The Wechsler Scales David Wechsler developed a series of questions and tasks that allowed researchers to look at intelligence in: Different subscales (verbal skills and performance/ non-verbal skills, working memory, and processing speed) Different age groups (WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and WISC Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(up to 16)) Processing Speed Example

X X O X X O O X O X X O O O X X O O X X O O O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X X X O X O X X O X O O X X X O X O X O X X O X O X O X O X O X O X O O X X X X X O X O O X O O X XX X O X X O O X O X X O O O X X O O X X O O O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X X XO O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X XO O X X XO O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O X O X X O XO X O X O O O X X XO O O O X X X O X O X O X O O O X O X O O O X XO O X X XO O O O X X X

Other Ideas About Intelligence Gardners theory of multiple intelligences (16:54) verbal, mathematical, spatial, movement, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, existential Sternbergs triarchic theory of intelligence Analytical, creative, practical Salvoy & Mayers emotional intelligence (EQ) Spearmans general intelligence (g)

Could be the result of an outside factor (health) Fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence based on the ability to learn across all areas of interest (peaks at 20) Crystallized intelligence that is obtained through experience over the lifespan (peaks near end of life) Note: this doesnt address multiple intelligences Where does this lead us in a developmental class? Understanding that there are many different types

of intelligence forces researchers looking at development study changes in multiple versions of intelligence Understanding the different goals and findings of intelligence researchers also lets us look closer at development related problems in intelligence that we find Understanding these theories also helps us better understand the concept of heritability when we examine its relationship with intelligence Understanding the Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness

Individuals that measure having IQs above 130 are arbitrarily defined as gifted Gifted individuals usually excel only in one or two specific areas of intelligence Despite the stereotypes, gifted individuals do not generally appear to display social or personality deficits Savant syndrome exception Giftedness has been liked to both genetics and environment

Understanding the Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation Mental retardation is defined as a limited mental ability Mentally retarded individuals are identified before the age of 18 There are many classifications of mental retardation, based on IQ scores To be defined as mentally retarded, individuals must: Have an IQ below 70 Have difficulty adapting to everyday life

More on Mental Retardation IQs below 50 are usually the product of genetic deficits (we discussed this in one of the first classes) Individuals with IQs between 50 and 70 are defined as having cultural-familial retardation (based on early experience and low stimulation environments) Treatment for mental retardation varies based on an individuals IQ Heritability the proportion of a characteristic that can be attributed

to the genetic makeup of parents Nature the amount of a characteristic (in this case, intelligence) that can be attributed to our genes Nurture the amount of a characteristic that can be attributed to our environment Sibling studies have revealed a very high level of genetic heritability in the area of intelligence This is particularly true when we look

at adult intelligence Returning to Heritability Some New Outlooks on Heritability Recent studies have led us to conclude that environments, especially ones that are significantly different, can also play a big role in intelligence Schooling lapses and decline in intelligence findings The Flynn effect worldwide increases in intelligence

over the past few decades Intervention studies (low IQ, SES, & comm. styles) Another look at these effects The context of culture on how we measure intelligence video More Developmental Concerns: Predictability and Stability Considerable research has shown that intelligence levels of infants are constantly fluctuating

Once reaching childhood, intelligence becomes more stable We have also found in numerous studies that our intelligence (IQs) at these ages is very predictive of our intelligence (IQs) throughout our lives a note on individual differences A Final Concern: Change Just like physical change and other cognitive changes that weve seen before, we see that intelligence follows a set path with respect to

aging as well Reexamining a past idea to understand a new one Remember the Flynn effect? When taking this into account, researchers have come up with some interesting new conclusions about old age and changes in intelligence Late Increases in Crystallized Intelligence Late crystallized intelligence has sometimes been called wisdom or pragmatic knowledge Wisdom expert knowledge about the practical

aspects of life that permits excellent judgment about important matters Note: wisdom has been theoretically linked to age, but we the statistical links that we would expect Wisdom is rare in the elderly, and everyone for that matter Early adulthood and late adolescence is when wisdom seems to emerge Experience and personality factors (openness to experience and creativity) seem to be better predictors of wisdom Wrapping Up Intelligence When looking at development and intelligence, we see that

intelligence measures actually came from our early attempts to understand development We see in our research that our intelligence based abilities grow with age in our early years We also see that our intelligence levels are usually fairly consistent throughout life And finally, we see that some intelligence based responses decline in the later years, but others might even improve Onto Language In the next class well be looking at how our

language skills change throughout our lifetime Read chapter 9 by the next class Also, papers are due at the beginning of class next week Email me if you have any questions about any of this

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • General Preprocessing - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    General Preprocessing - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Maximum Shear Stress Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress tmax is defined as which results in the largest principal shear stress This value can be compared to the yield strength to predict yielding for ductile materials Stress Intensity: The...
  • The Parapsychology of the Horse-Human Relationship

    The Parapsychology of the Horse-Human Relationship

    The Parapsychology of the Horse-Human Relationship Beverley Kane, MD Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention San Francisco Parapsychology Research Group Manual of Medicine & Horsemanship Core Message The most powerful and transformative phenomena in the horse-human relationship and in...
  • How would you find the exact radian measure

    How would you find the exact radian measure

    Half of that, π/4, is half of 90, or 45°. And so on. The most commonly used "special" angles are π/2, π/3, π/4, and π/6, and their multiples. These are the ones you'll need as you study trigonometry. To find...
  • Mining Regional Knowledge in Spatial Dataset

    Mining Regional Knowledge in Spatial Dataset

    Disaster analytics and understanding what makes communities resilient to absorb and recover from disasters. Moreover, my research group is starting new research in critical infrastructure resilience that employs artificial intelligence planning techniques to come up with plans that absorb or...
  • EVAPORATIVE WATER LOSS Effective channel - heat loss

    EVAPORATIVE WATER LOSS Effective channel - heat loss

    RESPIRATORY HEAT LOSS. 1.Heat loss warming inspired air due to differences in . temperatures of inspired and expired air • Only small part of heat balance. Air has low specific heat . Therefore - heat required increase temperature is small....
  • Person-Centered Planning

    Person-Centered Planning

    The less the individual with a special needs is the focus, the more chance he/she is in the Circle and is, truly, part of the "fabric." Elyakin/Sebu/Woodhams 11/92 Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope Two people, a group process facilitator and...
  • Advanced Summer Institute August 3, 2015 Breakout Session:

    Advanced Summer Institute August 3, 2015 Breakout Session:

    Craft and Structure. with Denise Leograndis. GENRE. Craft and Structure. PLEASE SIT AT GRADE LEVEL TABLES. Materials needed: Mac Cart. for finding the word genre in the framework. CCSS Standards - can use Macs. Chart paper & pens. Core Ready...
  • Water Based Growth Corridor - cmpethiopia.org

    Water Based Growth Corridor - cmpethiopia.org

    Water Based Growth Corridor Approach. Irrigation Advisory Group. Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Energy. This is one of the new initiatives of the MOWIE.