Warm-Up What are cells? What do they do

Warm-Up What are cells? What do they do

Warm-Up What are cells? What do they do that is important for life? 1 Warm-Up

How are eukaryotes different than prokaryotes? Include cell complexity and size. Pass them to the front 2 Cells Structure and

Function Wake County Biology Curriculum current.com 3 Cell Theory 1.All living things are

composed of cells. 2.The cell is the most basic unit of life. 3.All cells come from preexisting cells. 4 Prokaryotes: Most primitive cell Bacteria: do not have a nuclei or other

membrane bound organelles; DNA is contained within the cytoplasm Some bacteria have a capsule which is a surface layer that helps them stick to each other and surfaces eapbiofield.wikispaces.com

5 Bacteria have a cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, and DNA in

the cytoplasm (no nucleus). 6 Bacteria, or prokaryotes, have no

membranebound organelles. 7 One organelle unique to prokaryotes is a molecule of DNA called a

plasmid. A plasmid is a circular molecule www.malebolge.net16.net 8

9 However, eukaryotes have many membranebound organelles. 10 Eukaryotes

Unicellular or multi-cellular organism that contains membrane-bound organelles and genetic material within a nucleus All organisms but bacteria Includes protists, fungi, animals, and plants

11 12 13 Eukaryotes Many of the

membrane-bound organelles following are found in 14 Parts of

the Cell Cell wall: A tough covering made of cellulose that adds structure and protection to a cell Located outside the

cell membrane In plants, bacteria, protists, and fungi only (not animals) biology.unm.edu 15

Parts of the Cell Cell membrane: Semi-permeable outer layer of all cells Lets selected substances into the cell, such as food and

water, and other substances out of the cell, such as wastes. All cells have a membrane. www.harweb.com Cell membrane

16 Phospholipid Bilayer Membrane 17 Parts of the Cell

Nucleus: Only in eukaryotes; Contains the DNA of the eukaryotic cell so is called the control center of the cell. Enclosed in a membrane. www.cartage.org.lb 18

Parts of the Cell Nucleus Contains DNA DNA is in the form of chromatin When cells begin mitosis, DNA coils into structures called chromosomes

DNA carries all the genes needed to make and control the cell 19 Parts of the Cell Nuclear envelope: membrane surrounding the nucleus that allows

important molecules in and out of the nucleus Chromatin: DNA that has unwound from chromosome form into long strings 20 Parts of the Cell

Ribosomes: small organelles that make proteins; Made of RNA; they get their information directly from the nucleus; some attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and some are free free ribosome www.bcscience.com

www.cartage.org.lb 21 Parts of the Cell Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): folded membrane (so only in eukaryotes) within the cell that transports proteins and other chemicals throughout the cell; surrounds the nucleus to get

information from DNA www.ccs.k12.in.us Rough ER has ribosomes attached that make proteins on the membrane. Smooth ER has no ribosomes so other

chemicals are produced on the membrane 22 Parts of the Cell Golgi body (apparatus):

folded membranes (so found only in eukaryotes) that package chemicals, including proteins, that the cell produces

and then ships outside the cell. 23 Parts of the Cell Mitochondria: organelles that use sugar to produce energy for the cell;

know as the power house of the cell Folded membranes hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca 24 The folded membranes increase surface

area on which chemical reactions may occur. 25 Parts of the Cell Chloroplast: organelles that contain chlorophyll and the process of photosynthesis

Chlorophyll: the green pigment that is necessary for photosynthesis biology.unm.edu Folded

membranes 26 Parts of the Cell Vacuole: membrane-bound organelle that contains water, wastes, and other fluids in cells; large vacuole in plant cell

Vacuole helps cell keep its shape Animal cell www.science-art.com

en.wikipedia.org Plant cell 27 Parts of the Cell Lysosome: membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes; digest food

particles and other substances publications.nigms.nih.gov 28 Parts of the Cell Cytoplasm: a fluid that is contained in a cell and surrounds the cells organelles

cytoplasm coolcell.blogspot.com 29 In multicellular organisms, cell structure is connected to function. Every cell is made

to do a specific job and has to be put together in a specific way to do that job. 30 Even though every cell in a multicellular organism has the exact same set of DNA, different cells are

structurally different to do different jobs. 31 Morphology: the study of form and function of living things. l

32 Different cells may have different numbers and arrangements of organelles depending on what types of jobs the cells are responsible for.

33 34 35 Hierarchy of Life Atoms make molecules

www.emc.maricopa.edu 36 Hierarchy of Life Molecules make compounds 37 Hierarchy of Life

Compounds to organelles 38 Hierarchy of Life Organelles to Cells 39

Hierarchy of Life Cells to tissues hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca 40 Hierarchy of Life

Tissues to organs www.robinsonlibrary.com 41 Organs to organs systems 42 biologyjunction.com

Hierarchy of Life Organ systems to organism www.mesto-votice.cz 43 Hierarchy of Life Organisms to populations

44 Hierarchy of Life Populations to communities pixdaus.com 45

Hierarchy of Life Communities to ecosystem (biome) schools.bcsd.com www.brazadv.com 46

Hierarchy of Life Ecosystem s to biosphere 47 image.wistatutor.com

48 Answer the review questions at the end of the notes. You may work within your groups.

49 50 51 52

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