The Legal and Ethical Environment of Business 4-1 Chapter 4 Alternative Dispute Resolution 4-2 Learning Objectives Understand the role of negotiation in avoiding and settling disputes
Explore negotiation as it is commonly employed in business Understand the implications of bargaining power during negotiation Become familiar with the benefits and drawbacks of negotiation as a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 4-3
Learning Objectives Learn what mediation is Explore the process of mediation as an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) strategy Identify disputes suitable to mediation as a form of ADR
Become familiar with the benefits and drawbacks of mediation as a form of ADR 4-4 Learning Objectives Explore the option of arbitration as an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) strategy Explore contemporary issues of fairness in arbitration
Determine when arbitration is a viable option for dispute resolution Examine the benefits and drawbacks of arbitration as a form of ADR 4-5 Learning Objectives Learn about in-house dispute-resolution methods, med-arb, private judging, minitrials, and summary jury trials
Explore the benefits and drawbacks to forms of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) discussed in this section Explore potential restrictions upon ADR Review points of access to government to change public policy
Examine the Arbitration Fairness Act Bill 4-6 Introduction Alternative dispute resolution (ADR): Encompasses many different methods of dispute resolution other than litigation or trial Federal Arbitration Act (FAA): Federal statute under which parties are required to participate in arbitration when they have agreed by contract to do so, even in state court matters
4-7 Introduction Federal preemption: A judicially developed doctrine that recognizes the federal governments power, derived from the Supremacy Clause of the U.S. Constitution Supremacy Clause: A clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution that declares federal law supreme, which means that in the event that federal and state law conflict, federal law trumps state law 4-8
Figure 4.1 - A Continuum of Different ADR Methods 4-9 Negotiation A method of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) that retains power to resolve the dispute to the parties involved It requires the parties to define the conflicts and agree to an outcome to resolve those conflicts
Benefits of negotiation Speedy resolution Inexpensive nature of participation Voluntary participation 4-10 Negotiation Drawbacks of negotiation No set rules Either party may bargain badly or even unethically No guarantee of resolution
Non-involvement of attorneys may be seen as a drawback or a benefit, depending on the circumstances of the negotiation 4-11 Negotiation Bargaining power: The relative power of a party with respect to another party or parties that influences abilities to set agendas, influence outcomes, and negotiate terms during bargaining Unequal bargaining power: When parties possess different
power relative to each other, and this difference creates opportunities or obstacles with respect to setting agendas, influencing outcomes, and negotiating terms during 4-12 Negotiation When the negotiation occurs as a result of a dispute, but not a legal dispute per se, then the party with the weakest bargaining position may be in a very vulnerable spot For more on this, view the video: Rubbermaids Unequal Bargaining Power 4-13
Negotiation BATNA: Acronym for best alternative to a negotiated agreement The concept is used by negotiators to ensure that favorable terms are not rejected and unfavorable terms are not accepted WATNA: Acronym for worst alternative to a negotiated agreement, which is a concept used by some negotiators 4-14 Negotiation
Bargaining zone: The area in which parties to a negotiation are willing to trade, barter, or negotiate their positions, within which parties can find an acceptable agreement Reservation point: A partys bottom line in negotiation 4-15 Mediation A method of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in which parties
work to form a mutually acceptable agreement Parties in mediation do not vest authority to decide the dispute in a neutral third party Authority remains with the parties themselves, who are free to terminate mediation if they believe it is not working Mediation is appropriate only for parties who are willing to participate in the process
4-16 Mediation A third party is involved in mediation Mediator: A person who facilitates a mediation to achieve an acceptable, voluntary agreement between parties To know more about the various requirements and qualifications to
become a mediator in the different states, click here 4-17 Mediation Disputants choose their mediator This choice is based on the mediators: Reputation as a skilled conflict resolution expert Professional background Training Experience
Cost Availability 4-18 Mediation Prior to the mediation process, the mediator typically asks the parties to sign a mediation agreement At the outset, the mediator typically explains the process that the mediation will observe Opening statements, face-to-face communication, or indirect communication through the mediator
The mediator may suggest options for resolution and may be able to suggest alternatives not previously considered by the disputants 4-19 Mediation Mediation is an option for parties who cannot negotiate with each other but who could reach a mutually acceptable resolution with the assistance of a neutral party If parties retain attorneys, their costs for participating in the mediation will increase
4-20 Mediation Used in disputes: Between employers and employees Between businesses Between businesses and consumers 4-21 Mediation
Advantages: Seeks a win-win outcome for the parties involved Is confidential, which can be an attractive attribute for people who wish to avoid the public nature of litigation Is much faster than litigation 4-22 Mediation Disadvantages: If disputants are not willing to participate in the mediation process, the mediation will not work Even after considerable effort by the parties in dispute, the mediation may fail
Parties may not always be satisfied with a mediator 4-23 Arbitration A method of ADR in which parties vest authority in a third-party neutral decision maker who will hear their case and issue a decision, which is called an arbitration award Arbitration award: An arbitrators decision rendered after hearing the cases presented by the parties to an arbitration The arbitration award can be confirmed and converted into a judgment
by a court 4-24 Arbitration Arbitrators: Preside over arbitration proceedings Are neutral decision makers who are an expert in the law and subject matter at issue in the dispute Their decisions do not form binding precedent May be members of the judiciary, but in arbitrations they are not judges Act in an analogous capacity to judges in trials May be certified by the state in which they arbitrate, and they may
arbitrate only certain types of claims 4-25 Arbitration Mandatory arbitration results when: Disputes arise out of a legally binding contract involving commerce in which the parties agreed to submit to mandatory arbitration State law requires parties to enter into mandatory arbitration 4-26 Arbitration
Federal Arbitration Act (FAA): A federal statute that requires parties that have entered into contracts with mandatory arbitration clauses to submit to arbitration to resolve disputes arising under such contracts if the contract involves commerce Commerce Clause: A clause in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that gives Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce 4-27 Arbitration
Mandatory arbitration clause: A contractual clause that requires the parties to a contract that contains such a clause to submit to mandatory arbitration in the event of a dispute arising under the contract Frequently foreclose any possibility of appealing arbitration awards in court Voluntary arbitration exist in business disputes 4-28 Arbitration
Binding arbitration: An arbitration whose outcome is binding on the parties, without possibility of appeal to the courts Nonbinding arbitration: An arbitration in which the arbitration award can be appealed to a court In many states, an arbitration award is converted to a judgment by the court Judgment: A court decision that sets forth the rights or duties of parties to a dispute 4-29
Arbitration Confirmation: In the context of arbitration, the process by which a court converts an arbitration award to a judgment Uniform Arbitration Act: A uniform statute adopted in whole or in part by some states, which seeks to create uniformity in arbitration proceedings between states 4-30 Arbitration
It is an adversarial process like a trial, and it will produce a winner and a loser It is more formal than negotiation and mediation Parties present their cases to the arbitrator by introducing evidence After both sides have presented their cases, the arbitrator issues an arbitration award 4-31 Arbitration
Rules related to arbitration differ by state Arbitration can be more expensive than negotiation or mediation, but it is less expensive than litigation Arbitration is faster than litigation, but it is not as private as negotiation or mediation Unlike mediators, arbitrators are often subject-matter experts in the legal area of dispute
4-32 Arbitration Business to business (B2B) arbitrations are perceived as fair If businesses are roughly the same size or have roughly equal bargaining power Issues of fairness arise in business to employee (B2E) and
business to consumer (B2C) situations Parties with unequal bargaining power have entered into a contract that contains a mandatory arbitration clause If a dispute arises and mandatory arbitration is commenced, the unequal power between parties will continue to be an important issue 4-33 Other Methods of Alternative Dispute Resolution Ethics hotline: An in-house program in some companies that seeks to redress disputes and observed ethics violations before they escalate to permeate the institutional culture, damage a companys reputation, or rise to criminal or civil offenses
Open-door policy: An in-house policy in which company managers allow employees to bring grievances directly to them to truncate any potential disputes and resolve them immediately 4-34 Other Methods of Alternative Dispute Resolution Ombudsmen: In-house intermediary or office in which disputes or grievances against a company can be brought Ombudsmen investigate grievances and work with parties to resolve
disputes Mediation-arbitration (med-arb): A hybrid form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in which elements of mediation and negotiation are used in tandem 4-35 Other Methods of Alternative Dispute Resolution Private judging: Allows judges to hire out privately, to conduct private trials, and to reach a rapid resolution overseen by an
experienced judge Minitrial: Allows the parties to present their case to decision makers on both sides of the dispute, following discovery Summary jury trial: A mock trial presented to a jury whose verdict is nonbinding 4-36 Public Policy, Legislation, and Alternative
Dispute Resolution Federal Arbitration Act (FAA): A federal statute that requires parties that have entered into contracts with mandatory arbitration clauses to submit to arbitration to resolve disputes arising under such contracts if the contract involves commerce The U.S. Supreme Court interpreted the Federal Arbitration Act as Congresss declaration of a national policy in favor of arbitration 4-37 Public Policy, Legislation, and Alternative Dispute Resolution
Arbitration Fairness Act of 2009 (AFA): A bill that, if passed, would invalidate mandatory arbitration requirements for consumers in B2C disputes and employees in B2E disputes, as well as in disputes involving violations of civil rights If Congress passed the AFA, this would be an example of one branch of government checking another branchs power as contemplated by the U.S. Constitution This checking of power maintains relative balance among the branches 4-38
Public Policy, Legislation, and Alternative Dispute Resolution Consumers and employees who do not like the FAAs current broad interpretation can work within the government system to change the law In the United States, the policy process is open for participation, though changes often take much work and time People with special interests tend to coalesce and press for changes in the law to reflect those positions
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