H H O Water Basics Polar: part of

H H O Water Basics  Polar: part of

H H O Water Basics Polar: part of a molecule is slightly positive, while another part is slightly negative Oxygen hogs electrons from hydrogen 8 protons: 10 electrons Negative charge Hydrogen 1 proton: 0 electrons Positive charge Creates hydrogen bonds where one water sticks to another + + 1 1

1 1 1 2 6 1 5 2 4 - 3 Red = Oxygen (negative) ++ + + -+ ++

++ ++ ++ +-+ +-+ ++ ++ ++ White = Hydrogen (positive) +-+ +-+ ++ -+ +

++ ++ +-+ ++ + +++ ++ +-+ ++ + + ++ + Water Properties 7ml 6.8ml Why can this insect walk on water?

It is not heavy enough to break the bonds that hold the water molecules together. High specific heat: Resists temp changes Much energy needed to break water bonds Helps to maintain a constant body temp Cohesion: polar water molecules attracted to other polar water molecules Adhesion: polar water sticks to other molecules Solutions Solution SUGAR KOOL AID Solution: mixture where 1 substance dissolves in another 2 parts to a solution

1) Solute: substance that dissolves Atoms, ions, molecules 2) Solvent: substance in which the solute is dissolved Usually water Solutions Solution: mixture where 1 substance dissolves in another 2 parts to a solution 1) Solute: substance that dissolves Atoms, ions, molecules 2) Solvent: substance in which the solute is dissolved Usually water Ex: Human blood Solvent: Plasma (watery part of blood) Solutes: Carbs, proteins, sugars, etc

pH Scale More H+ Few OH- Acid Lemons Base neutral Soft drink Blood Milk Baking soda pH scale measures the amount of H+ ions in a solution 1 minute: Discuss with your neighbor: A) Which base has the most H+ ions? blood B) Which substance has the fewest H+ ions? Ammonia C) Which is the strongest acid? Lemons

Few H+ More OH- Ammonia pH Scale pH scale measures the amount of H+ ions Some molecules release H+ ions when dissolved H+ ions accumulate (acids) Acidic solution H+ H+ H+ H+ Substance A H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ pH Scale pH scale measures the amount of H+ ions

Some molecules release H+ ions when dissolved H+ ions accumulate (acids) Some molecules release OHions when dissolved OH- ions accumulate (bases) Basic (alkaline) solution OH- OH- OHOHOHSubstance B OHOH-OHOH- pH Scale pH scale measures the amount of H+ ions Some molecules release H+ ions when dissolved H+ ions accumulate (acids) Some molecules release OH- ions when dissolved OH- ions accumulate (bases) pH balance vital to life Ex: Blood pH (7.4): Proteins break down outside normal pH Blood pH OH-

H+ H+ H+ OH- H+ H+ H+ H+ OH- OH- H+ OH- H+ OH-

H+ H+ H+ Normally: Balance of H+ and OH- ions in blood (7.4 pH) Alcohol abuse: Excess alcohol lowers blood pH (H+ ions accumulate) Kidney removes excess H+ Can lead to kidney damage OH- H+ OH- H+ H+ H+ OH- H+

H+ H+ OH- H+ OH- Review 1) Vocabulary: Polar, Adhesion, Cohesion, High Specific Heat, Solution, Solute, Solvent, pH 2) Name 4 basic features of water. 3) Which water property explains that one atom is positively charged, while another is negatively charged? 4) How does cohension and adhesion differ? 5) Which is a stronger acid? Substance A with a pH of 5 or substance B with a pH of 3? 6) Which has more H+ ions? Substance A with a pH of 5 or substance B with a pH of 3? 7) Which has more OH- ions? Substance A with a pH of 5 or substance B with a pH of 3? 8) How does a solute differ from a solvent? 9) What is the solute and solvent of blood?

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