THE LIFE OF CHRIST John 19:17 And He, bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, 18 where they crucified Him, and Golgotha, 18 two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the center. So, a man named Simon was forced to carry the cross for Him by the Roman soldiers
(Mk. 15:21; Lk. 23:26). Luke 23:27 And a great multitude of the people followed Him, and women who also 28 But Jesus, mourned and lamented Him. 28 turning to them, said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for Me, but weep 29 "For for yourselves and for your children. 29 indeed the days are coming in which they will say, 'Blessed are the barren, wombs
that never bore, and breasts which never 30 "Then they will begin 'to say to nursed!' 30 the mountains, "Fall on us!" and to the hills, 31 "For if they do these things "Cover us!" ' 31 in the green wood, what will be done in the dry?" This proverbial expression has been variously interpreted; but it would appear that Farrar's explanation is correct: "If they
act thus to me, the Innocent and the Holy, what shall be the fate of these, the guilty and the false?" There is here a dramatic prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem, in which women especially would be deprived and suffer tribulations. The green tree represents the innocent and holy Saviour in the spirituality and vigor of his life; the dry tree represents the morally dead and sapless people, typified by the fig tree, blasted by his word, four days earlier.
Thus, by this prophecy, as Jesus left the city for the last time, he prophesied its doom no less than he did upon entering it (Luke 19:41f). Not even the prospect of immediate death took the Saviour's mind away from the awful penalties that would fall upon Jerusalem for his rejection. The fires of suffering consuming Jesus (the green tree) would be nothing to compare with the fires of destruction that would burn up the dead tree (Jerusalem, judicially and morally dead) (Coffmans commentary on Luke 23).
Before He was crucified, He was offered sour wine mingled with gall (Mt. 27:34). Gall is a bitter substance made from wormwood, a plant yielding a bitter-tasting dark-green oil that is alcoholic in its effect (Friberg Lexicon). Marks account says it was mingled with myrrh (Mk. 15:23), which was a transparent, brown, brittle, odorous substance, with bitter taste (Faussets Bible dictionary).
1. The Latin cross (shaped like a lower case t). 2. The St. Anthonys cross (shaped like a capital T). 3. The St. Andrews cross (shaped like a capital X). 4. The so-called Greek cross (shaped like a plus sign). (Nelsons New Illustrated Bible Dictionary p. 315) When the Romans conquered Palestine they
continued the use of this form of punishment, but only in the case of slaves and the most vicious criminals. Thus crucifixion carried with it a stigma. It was a part of the humiliation of Jesus that he should be made to suffer this particular form of death. It identified him with the lowest class of criminals. Crucifixion was an unspeakably horrible means of death. Cicero in condemning it said, `"Let it never come near the body of a Roman citizen; nay, not even near his thoughts, or
eyes, or ears." Victims of crucifixion were suspended on a cross placed well above the ground.... It consisted of two rough beams or logs nailed together near the top of the upright beam which was placed in the ground. The victim was usually stripped of all clothing, these garments falling to the lot of the executioners. The upright was placed securely in the earth standing some ten feet above the ground.
The horizontal beam was placed on the ground, the victim was laid down with arms extended on this crossbar to which they were fastened with cords and afterward by nails driven through the palms. The bar was then raised to its appointed place near the top of the upright where it was securely fastened. The body of the victim was left suspended by the arms. The feet were then fastened to the upright by the use of long spikes driven through the balls of the feet.
Thus suspended the victim was left to hang in physical agony until death mercifully released him from suffering ... Since no vital organs were affected the poor victim lingered in the throes of the most excruciating pain. Death came slowly; the victim often lived as long as two or three full days. Throbbing with pain, burned with fever and tortured by thirst, these unfortunate men often prayed for the relief which only death could furnish (H. I. Hester,
The Heart of the New Testament p. 214-215 The Annual Denton Lectures Studies in John Electronic Version). Furthermore, the driven nail would crush or server the rather large sensorimotor median nerve. The stimulated nerve would produce excruciating bolts of fiery pain in both arms. Although the severed median nerve would result in paralysis of a portion of the hand, ischemic contractures and impalement of various ligaments by the iron
spike might produce a claw like grasp (On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ William D. Edwards, MD). In 1968, Vassilios Tzaferis found the first indisputable remains of a crucifixion victim. The victims skeleton had been placed in an ossuary that was typical of those used by Jews in the Holy Land between the end of the second century B.C. and the fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 (McRay, 1991, p. 204). From an analysis of the skeletal remains of
the victim, osteologists and other medical professionals from the Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem were able to determine that the victim was a male between the approximate ages of 24 and 28 who was about 5 feet 6 inches tall. Based on the inscription of the ossuary, his name seems to have been Yehohanan, the son of Hagakol, although the last word of the description is still disputed (p. 204). The most significant piece of the victims
skeleton is his right heel bone. A large spike- like nail had been hammered through the right heel. Between the head of the nail and the heel bone, several fragments of olive wood were found lodged. Randall Price, in his book, The Stones Cry Out, suggested that the nail apparently hit a knot in the olive stake upon which this man was crucified, causing the nail and heel to be removed together, due to the difficulty of removing the nail by itself (1997, p. 309)
Dr. C. Truman Davis notes: As He slowly sags down with more weight on the nails in the wrists excruciating pain shoots along the fingers and up the arms to explode in the brain -- the nails in the writs are putting pressure on the median nerves. As He pushes Himself upward to avoid this stretching torment, He places His full weight on the nail through His feet. Again there is the searing agony of the nail tearing through the nerves between the metatarsal bones of the feet.
At this point, as the arms fatigue, great waves of cramps sweep over the muscles, knotting them in deep, relentless, throbbing pain. With these cramps comes the inability to push Himself upward. Hanging by his arms, the pectoral muscles are paralyzed and the intercostal muscles are unable to act. Air can be drawn into the lungs, but cannot be exhaled. Jesus fights to raise Himself in order to get even one short breath. Finally, carbon dioxide builds up in the lungs and in the blood
stream and the cramps partially subside. Spasmodically, he is able to push Himself upward to exhale and bring in the life-giving oxygen. It was undoubtedly during these periods that He uttered the seven short sentences recorded (A Physician Testifies Now Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE 20 Then many of the Jews read this JEWS. 20
title, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city; and it was written in 21 Therefore the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. 21 chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, 'The King of the Jews,' but, 'He said, "I am the King of the Jews." ' 22 Pilate answered, "What I have written, I " 22 have written. 19 19
When we examine all four Gospels, we discover the title read, THIS IS JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. According to F.F. Bruce: Hebrew (or Aramaic) was the vernacular of the Palestinian Jews; Latin was the official language of the Roman army; Greek was the common medium of culture and conversation in the eastern providences of the Roman Empire(F.F. Bruce, The Gospel &
Epistles of John, p. 368). John 19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to each soldier a part, and also the tunic. Now the tunic was without seam, 24 They woven from the top in one piece. 24 said therefore among themselves, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be," that the Scripture might be fulfilled which says: "They divided My garments
among them, And for My clothing they cast lots." Therefore the soldiers did these things. Jesus is crucified at 9 A.M. Jesus says, Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do (Lk. 23:34). The soldiers take Jesus garments and cast lots for His inner garment (Jn. 19:2324). As people walked by they were wagging their heads and mocking Jesus with the chief priest, scribes, and elders (Mt.
27:39-43). The soldiers and thieves mocked Him as well (Mt. 27:44; Lk. 23:36-39). One of the thieves rebukes the other ones mocking and asks Jesus to remember him in His kingdom (Lk. 23:3942). Jesus says, Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise (Lk. 23:43). Jesus says to His mother, Woman, behold your son! Then He said to the disciple,
Behold your mother (Jn. 19:26-27)! At 12 P.M. there was darkness over the whole land, and it remained that way until 3 P.M. (Mk. 15:33). About 3 P.M. Jesus says, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me? (Mt. 27:46). Jesus says, I thirst (Jn. 19:28). Jesus is offered sour wine, and He receives it and says, It is finished (Jn. 19:30).
Finally, Jesus says, Father, 'into Your hands I commit My spirit' (Lk. 23:46), and Jesus breathed His last breath. Luke 23:33 And when they had come to the place called Calvary, there they crucified Him, and the criminals, one on the right hand and the other on the left. 34 Then Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they do." And they divided His garments and cast lots.
Matthew 5:43 " You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' 44 "But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, 45 "that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. Isaiah 53:12 Therefore I will divide Him a
portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He poured out His soul unto death, And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors. 1 John 5:13 These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God, that you may know that you have eternal life, and that you may continue to believe in the name of the Son of God.
Acts 2:36 "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ." 37 Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?" 38 Then Peter said to them, "Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
2 Peter 3:9 The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance. Matthew 18:21 Then Peter came to Him and said, "Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Up to seven times?" 22 Jesus said to him, "I do not say to you, up to seven times, but up to seventy
times seven. 23 "Therefore the kingdom of heaven is like a certain king who wanted to settle accounts with his servants. 24 "And when he had begun to settle accounts, one was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents. 25 "But as he was not able to pay, his master commanded that he be sold, with his wife and children and all that he had, and that payment be made. 26 "The servant therefore fell down before him, saying, 'Master, have patience with me,
and I will pay you all.' 27 "Then the master of that servant was moved with compassion, released him, and forgave him the debt. 28 "But that servant went out and found one of his fellow servants who owed him a hundred denarii; and he laid hands on him and took him by the throat, saying, 'Pay me what you owe!' 29 "So his fellow servant fell down at his feet and begged him, saying, 'Have patience with me, and I will pay you all.' 30 "And he would not, but went and threw him into prison till he
should pay the debt. 31 "So when his fellow servants saw what had been done, they were very grieved, and came and told their master all that had been done. 32 "Then his master, after he had called him, said to him, 'You wicked servant! I forgave you all that debt because you begged me. 33 'Should you not also have had compassion on your fellow servant, just as I had pity on you?' 34 "And his master was angry, and delivered him to
the torturers until he should pay all that was due to him. 35 "So My heavenly Father also will do to you if each of you, from his heart, does not forgive his brother his trespasses." Hebrews 8:12 "For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more."
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