Sound Notes -

Sound Notes -

Sound Notes Chatfield Senior High Department of Physics Sound is a Wave

It is a longitudinal (1-D) wave Properties of Sound Transmission-sound goes through a

material Reflection- waves bounce off at the same angle it was received Absorption- waves are blocked by a substance (opposite of transmission)

Transmission in space? Sound requires a medium to travel Speed of Sound

It is variable based upon temperature and density of the material Approximate values of speed of sound Air

(00-) 330 m/s Air (25o) 343 m/s Water-1440 m/s Glass-4550 m/s Iron and Steel- 5000m/s

Lab 1- Verifying frequency of a tuning fork Determine period of wave by averaging 10 wavefronts as below and then use f=1/T to verify frequency

FFT Curve Lab 2-Sound through echo Find distance of the tube and double it (why?) Use v=d/t to determine the speed of sound in

air. Lab 3-Finding Resonance of Tube Find frequency where sound rings out

The sound is reflecting off the water and therefore creates a closed ended tube The is basically a quarter of a wavelength (why?)

Resonance in Sound Wavelengths that have the same amplitude and frequency that result in an increase of amplitude

Closed Ended Tube (Pipe organ) Open-Ended Tubes and Strings (Organ / Guitar String) (1/2

The decibel A logarithmic scale that shows the loudness of sound L=10 A A= log L Table of values

Threshold of hearing- 0 dB Whisper-20 dB Library-40 dB Refrigerator-45 dB Restaurant- 50 dB Ordinary Conversation-65 dB

Busy Traffic- 70 dB Screaming Child- 90 dB iPod at Maximum Volume-108 dB CSH Fire Alarm-115 dB Threshold of Pain-120 dB Jet Airplane-140 dB

Frequencies of Sound The human ear hears sound from the range from 20-20000 Hz We hear sounds the best from 1000-

5000 Hz Frequencies of Music Range of Audibility of the

Human Ear Ultrasound (Frequencies above human hearing) Beats

Two waves constructively interfering whose frequencies are above or below each other The Ear

Function of the Ears parts Outer ear-pinna-collects sound Middle ear-transmits vibrations to the inner ear Inner ear-fluid transmitted to hair cells

that have nerve endings (also used for balance) Doppler Effect When an object is moving toward the observer

the pitch is higher When an object is moving away from the observer the pitch is lower Sonic Boom

Sound and Music Most purethe Blue Man Group

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