Traditional Articulation Therapy Phonetic Intervention What constitutes the so-called 'traditional' approach to 'articulation therapy'? There is no single definition, for indeed a number of beliefs and practices may be involved, and the term clearly means different things to different people, depending on what they thought was generally done.
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Procedures Some of the procedures that have characterised assessment
and intervention for functional speech disorders, and which may be considered by many SLPs/SLTs to embrace 'traditional' approaches, were described by Powers (1971). Powers maintained that the 'stimulus methods' developed and described by Travis (1931), had remained the core of the majority of treatment methodologies used by speechlanguage pathologists. Powers began her therapy with auditory discrimination training. A sound was identified, named, discriminated from other speech sounds, and then discriminated in contexts of increasing complexity.
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Hallmark sequence Permutations of the traditional approach, always putting discrimination of sounds produced by others first, are to be found in Berry and Eisenson (1956), Carrell (1968), Garrett (1973), Sloane and Macaulay (1968) and of course, Van Riper (1978 p. 179), who wrote: "The hallmark of traditional therapy lies in its sequence of activities for: (1) identifying the standard sound, (2) discriminating it from its error through scanning and comparing, (3) varying and correcting the various productions until it is produced
correctly, and finally, (4) strengthening and stabilizing it in all contexts and speaking situations." Therapy resources designed for the administration of traditional approaches to speech therapy for children's speech sound disorders continue to be published, some incorporating aspects of other programs and methodologies, and some with evidence of internal development. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Therapist as teacher
Adopting the role of teacher, the therapist guides the child through a series of carefully sequenced and graded steps, usually one phoneme at a time. The procedure starts with ear training, and goes on through increasingly complex production contexts. Finally the phoneme is used in spontaneous conversational
speech, and the emphasis moves to self-monitoring. The child takes a "passive learner" role, with active exploration and processing of the sound system not specifically encouraged. The approach, rather than being communication centred, is "therapy" centred, with the child learning what the therapist sets out to teach. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Evidence Following the example of the medical
profession, published evidence of the success of traditional approaches has been mainly in the form of case illustrations and clinical descriptions (for example, Powers, 1971; Travis, 1931; Van Riper & Irwin, 1959). Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Regardless of their placement on the phonetic phonemic continuum, children
with speech disorders require aspects of each in remediating their sound disorders. The focus on either the phonetic or phonemic aspects of sound production will vary depending upon the childs learning needs. I believe that intervention that focuses on one aspect to the exclusion of the other will be limited in terms of longer intervention periods and/or in failure to generalize. Williams, 2005 Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Target Selection Phonetic targets are sounds that the child is unable to produce or sounds for which the child does not have true stimulability. Likely candidates are /s/ and other fricatives, the affricates, /r/, /l/, // and //, including residual errors. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Intervention Procedures Identify the standard sound. 2. Discriminate it from its error. 3. Vary and correct (shape) productions until it is produced correctly. 4. Strengthen and stabilise it in all contexts and speaking situations. Van Riper (1978, p. 179). 1.
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Intervention Activities Therapy incorporates Phonetic placement Auditory discrimination training Drill Drill-play The following slides contain examples of the types of activities and materials employed.
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Cue cards: pictures and sounds Say the speech sound not the letter name when providing cues. t May need to explain this repeatedly.
The dripping tap says t t t The snake sound is s s Tuesday, March 03, 2020 CUE CARDS Use imagery the child understands sh The be quiet noise is //
The bunny rabbit noise is /f/ f Tuesday, March 03, 2020 There is no right way to cue use imagery that means something to child and family. z A buzzy be goes /z/ The popcorn noise is p p p
p Picture and phoneme m ch Say /m/, not em or muh Say //, not cee aitch or chuh
Word Flips (Granger, 2005) Useful resource CV words presented in a format that many children enjoy. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Game Formats Posting toys, trains, photo cubes, necklaces, flash cards on key rings, brag books
Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen CV Syllable and Word Drills C + /i:/ (consonant plus ee) Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Tuesday, March 03, 2020 CV sea Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 VC ugg Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020
VC egg Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Single word production drill
Game: Artic Chipper Chat Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Single word production drill CD - Speech Sounds on Cue http://www.mmsp.com.au Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Single word production drill Smart Chute Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Single word and short phrase production drill sheep cape soup cup soap pipe rope top
=== sheep in a cap, sheep in a cape, sheep slurping soup, sheep with a cup http://www.blacksheeppress.co.uk Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Single word and sentence production drill
LinguiSystems SPARC Revised, SPARC Artic Junior, SPARC for Phonology; SPARC R and S Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Single word and sentence production drill Power Point Picture Sequences /k/ at the beginnings of words
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 key Mum lost her key. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020
cup Is that your cup? Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 cap Andrew has a cap.
Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 cone I want an ice-cream cone. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020
walk Go for a walk. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 sock Thats not my sock! Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Tuesday, March 03, 2020 hook See the shiny hook. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 work
I like this work. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen Tuesday, March 03, 2020 Apps http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/phonologicaltherapy/ message
/20097 iPad Apps ArtikPix PhonoPix Articulate It (Smarty Ears) Toontastic Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen iSpeech for iPad
Pocket SLP Articulation REFERENCES Berry, M.D., & Eisenson, J.(1956). Speech disorders: Principals and practices of therapy. New York: Appleton Century Crofts. Carrell, A.A. (1968). Disorders of articulation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Garrett, E.R. (1973). Programmed articulation therapy. In D. Wolfe & D.J. Golding (Eds.). Articulation and learning. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. Powers, M.H. (1971). Clinical educational procedures in functional disorders of articulation. In L.E.
Travis, (Ed.). Handbook of speech pathology and audiology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Raz, M. G. (2009). One clinician's streamlining of traditional articulation therapy. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 14-17. Sloane, H.N. Jr., & Macaulay, B.D. (Eds.). (1968). Operant procedures in remedial speech and language training. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Travis, L.E. (1931). Speech pathology. New York: Appleton. Van Riper, C. (1978). Speech correction: Principles and methods. (6th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall. Van Riper, C. & Irwin, J.V. (1959). Voice and articulation. London: Pitman Medical Publishing Company. Copyright 2011 Caroline Bowen
Did you know that the Arctic Tundra is the world's youngest biome? It was formed 10,000 years ago. Located at latitudes 55° to 70° North, the tundra is a vast and treeless land which covers about 20% of the Earth's...
ELASTIC SCATTERING IN D0 EXPERIMENT Carlos Avila Universidad de Los Andes Bogota, Colombia FPD has opened the opportunity to study elastic scattering in the D0 experiment. We show in this talk: The analysis of elastic triggers taken during FPD commissioning....
The Malthusian dilemma was proposed by English clergyman Thomas Malthus who identified that populations multiply geometrically (i.e. exponential progression), while food resources only increase arithmetically (i.e. linear progression) In other words, species tend to produce more offspring than the environment...
The Evidence: 2. Religious Scepticism. YouGov, 2011: 79% agreed with the statement that religion is a cause of much misery and conflict in the world today; 11% disagreed . 35% agreed that religion is a force for good in the...
A common format for an analogy statement is as follows: A is to B as C is to D. In an analogy problem, one or two terms are missing and students must complete the statement by providing terms that will...
Cardiac Output: CO = HR x SV. How to measure it: Echocardiogram + Doppler flow . Fick's method: Principle: amount of substance taken up by an organ = (the amount of substance in arterial blood - amount of substance in...