Stem cells - California Institute for Regenerative Medicine

Stem cells - California Institute for Regenerative Medicine

Stem Cells and Embryonic Development How old is this? What is it? What is this?

How old is it? Mark Hill, UNSW Central ethical question surrounding embryonic stem cell research: Under what circumstances, if any, can 5-14 day old human embryos be:

1. Created and destroyed (prevented from developing further, then immortalized) for research purposes? 2. Donated as research material as a result of the In Vitro Fertilization procedure? 3. Checked and screened for certain genes then selected for or against? Outline of Presentation

Natural Fertilization In vitro fertilization Embryonic development Where are embryonic stem cells found? What are the other types of stem cells? How do CIRM scientists use embryonic SCs? Can and should we select for genetic makeup?

Natural Fertilization The Old Fashioned Way + = Outline of Presentation

Natural Fertilization In vitro fertilization Embryonic development Where are embryonic stem cells found? What are the other types of stem cells? How do CIRM scientists use embryonic SCs? Can and should we select for genetic makeup?

Day 1 In the IVF procedure, sperm and eggs interact in a dish leading to insemination. They literally swim up to the egg and burrow toward the nucleus. The first one to get there wins, and all others are blocked out. Male fertility issue: Sometimes sperm cannot latch onto and penetrate the egg. They may choose to have Intra(within)-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Embryonic Stem Cells Outline of Presentation

Natural Fertilization In vitro fertilization Embryonic development

Where are embryonic stem cells found? What are the other types of stem cells? How do CIRM scientists use embryonic SCs? Can and should we select for genetic makeup? Embryonic Development: Fish model

Keller et al. 2008 At what point is it a fetus? Days 7-14: Uterine implantation Day 14: Three distinct layers begin to form more pluripotent stem cells) Days 14-21: Beginning of future nervous system

Days 21-24: Beginning of future face, neck, mouth, and nose Weeks 3-8: Beginning of organ formation This picture is Week 5 Week 5-8+: Now its called a fetus

(no consensus on a single timepoint) (no Outline of Presentation

Natural Fertilization In vitro fertilization

Embryonic development Where are embryonic stem cells found? What are the other types of stem cells? How do CIRM scientists use embryonic SCs? Can and should we select for genetic makeup? This cell Can form the

entire human being This cell Cannot form the entire human being Fully mature

Symmetric cell division Asymmetric cell division 1. Self-renews 2. Differentiates Progenitor cell Stem cell

Stem cell Outline of Presentation

Natural Fertilization In vitro fertilization Embryonic development Where are embryonic stem cells found?

What are the other types of stem cells? How do CIRM scientists use embryonic SCs? Can and should we select for genetic makeup? What is stem cell research? Understand more about development, aging, disease Experimental model systems

Prevent or treat diseases and injuries Cell-based therapies Pharmaceutical development Includes testing and drug delivery Spinal cord injury: Example of embryonic stem cell-based therapy

Geron video: http://www.geron.com/grnopc1clearance/ CIRM funding breakdown: Cell Type CIRM funds many types of Stem Cell Research

Outline of Presentation

Natural Fertilization In vitro fertilization Embryonic development Where are embryonic stem cells found? What are the other types of stem cells? How do CIRM scientists use embryonic SCs? Can and should we select for genetic makeup?

Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis A procedure to see if the baby has a chance of inheriting genetic diseases One-two test cells taken from morula stage The embryo can grow normally if chosen for implantation Two techniques:

Heteroduplex Analysis: DNA is tested for structural abnormalities Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH): Chromosomes are dyed to look for translocations and check the number of chromosomes Ethics of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis If the embryo shows a genetic variation linked

with a genetic disease the parents could decide to terminate that pregnancy or not use that embryo Discuss: Under what circumstances, if any, can 5-14 day old human embryos be: 1.Created and destroyed (prevented from

developing further, then immortalized) for research purposes? 2.Donated as research material as a result of the In Vitro Fertilization procedure? 3.Checked and screened for certain genes then selected for or against?

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