Steve Haeseker, Howard Schaller & Charlie Petrosky Western ...
Comparative Survival Study Outcomes Experimental Spill Management Howard Schaller PSMFC Annual Meeting September 24, 2013 1 Comparative Survival Study A regional collaborative salmon and steelhead life cycle monitoring program Successfully implemented since 1998 Annually reviewed by the NPCC Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the region Analyses published in peer reviewed scientific journals History and Background Analyzed multiple lines of evidence 60- 40 years of historical run reconstruction data
15 years of Comparative Survival Study Data 15 years of spill and dissolved gas data and effects on juvenile migrants Developed spill scenarios on the basis COE data 3 NPCC Smolt-to-Adult Survival Goal-Recovery Achieve SARs averaging 4% for Snake River Chinook salmon and steelhead 4 3 SAR 2 1 0 Chinook
Observed Steelhead Observed NPCC Smolt-to-Adult Survival Goal- Recovery Achieve SARs averaging 4% for Snake River Chinook salmon and steelhead 4 3 SAR 2 1 0 Chinook Observed
Steelhead Observed Decline in Snake R. Chinook & steelhead associated with dams 3 4 5 6 7 8 dams Key Concepts: Is there evidence linking estuary and early-ocean mortality to the migration experience through the hydrosystem? DELAYED Hydrosystem MORTALITY Similar concept to smoking/lung cancer P en t
o ly l tia 8 D am s 7 Delayed Hydrosystem Mortality Multiple lines of evidence 3 fold decline in marine survival rate for Chinook 2 fold decline in marine survival rate for Steelhead CSS Workshop 2011 The evidence presented for delayed
mortality arising from earlier experience in the hydrosystem is strong and convincing. It is difficult to imagine how [other factors] would align so well both in time and space with the establishment of the hydro system. 8 Summary of 2011 Workshop Survival (in freshwater and marine) increases: faster water velocity increased spill lower % transported Current FCRPS configuration: Little ability to speed water velocity Opportunity to further manage spill combined with surface passage to reduce powerhouse passages Promising approach - management experiment to evaluate improvements to SARs by increasing voluntary spill- Adaptive Management approach Approach Weight of evidence Multiple lines of evidence for relative importance of major
factors influencing survival rates Precision & Specificity Life stage CSS SARs (Chin & Sthd) SARs (run rec. - Snake Chin & Sthd) Life cycle Spawner:recruit (Snake & John Day Chin) 3 1960 4 5 6 1965
Key Studies Petrosky and Schaller 2010 Spill, water velocity and ocean conditions influence SARs Haeseker et al. 2012 Spill, water velocity and ocean conditions influence SARs Over a dozen peer reviewed publications Relative Variable Importance Steelhead 5% 4% SAR 3%
Tailrace (2) Juvenile Bypass Systems Submersible traveling screen (3) Turbine Spill Benefits Historic data has consistently shown a juvenile survival advantage. Spill is a mitigation measure that can be provided in every flow year. Spill can be provided without impact to reservoir elevations. Risk Based Spill Program Survival benefits of spill > potential TDG related mortality Adaptive Management approach-supported by empirical observations: Juvenile survival SARs
TDG effects Variability of Spill 1995-2012 5 P e r c e n t o f F is h w it h F in G B T Summary of GBT Samples (19952012) as a function of TDG 223,921 fish examined 25% 20% 15% PctFinGBT PctRank1 PctRank2 PctRank3 PctRank4 10%
7.7% 4.9% 5% 2.5% 0% 0.2% 100 to 105 0.3% 106 to 110 0.9% 0.6% 111 to 115 116 to 120
121 to 125 126 to 130 Upstream Tailwater TDGS 130 to 139 In Preparation for 2013 Workshop Develop estimates of the amount of water that could be spilled (spill caps) at each of the hydroprojects on the Lower Snake and Columbia rivers for the various scenarios modeled for the 2013 workshop. Choose representative flow years for prospective modeling. 2 Summary of 2013 Workshop Reviewed historical dissolved gas effects. Presented and reviewed draft Experimental Spill
Management Design. Evaluated four spill levels: Biological Opinion-current 115/120% - lowest increase 120% Tailrace -moderate increase 125% Tailrace - greatest increase What is experimental design? Plan for measuring response to a treatment - Treatment = increase in spill for fish passage - Response = change in survival - Plan = implement CSS monitoring methods 21 Elements of good experimental design - Large contrast (perturbation) - High precision of measured response variable - High degree of replication - Minimize and account for confounding factors
22 Summary of 2013Workshop Applied peer-reviewed models to spill levels Prospective tools integrating across river and ocean conditions Summarize distributions relative to desired goals (e.g., population viability) Undesirable 70 60 Frequency 50 40 30 20 10 -1%
0 0% 1% 2% 3% Projected SARs 4% 5% 6% 24 Prospective tools integrating across river and ocean conditions Summarize distributions relative to desired goals (e.g., NPCC SAR goals, Recovery)
Since 98: 10% 14% 25% 0% 125 120 115/120 BIOP Spill Treatment 27 Summary of 2013Workshop Applied peer-reviewed models to spill levels Chinook salmon SAR
Steelhead 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0
125% 120% 115/120% BiOp Observed 125% 120% 115/120% BiOp Observed Summary: Definition of spill scenarios for simulations based on what appears technically possible with current FCRPS configuration Biological Planning tool indicates 125% spill level most likely to achieve SAR objectives Ongoing CSS analyses provide rigorous monitoring framework Expected benefits to Upper- & Mid-Columbia stocks These stocks provide for additional monitoring/learning Simulations are encouraging in terms of: expected response (conservation benefit) likelihood of detecting response (learning) Questions?
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