# storm.cis.fordham.edu Proposition logic and argument CISC2100, Fall 2019 X.Zhang Where are my glasses? I know the following statements are true. 1. If I was reading the newspaper in the kitchen, then my glasses are on the kitchen table. 2. If my glasses are on the kitchen table, then I saw them at breakfast. 3. I did not see my glasses at breakfast.

4. I was reading the newspaper in the living room or I was reading the newspaper in the kitchen. 5. If I was reading the newspaper in the living room then my glasses are on the coffee table. More likely scenario for you: where are bugs in my CS1 program? you might find yourself reasoning through your code: if a>0 here, then this line is executed, which makes b=0, . Algebraic for logic

Recall that you know 1+10=10+1, 45+23=23+45, and in general, a+b=b+a, 2 * (3+10)=2*3+2*10, in general a(b+c)=ab+ac . Similarly, definitions of formal logic were developed to capture natural or intuitive logic used by people Benefits: allow us to see structures (forms) of arguments more clearly avoid fallacy (or logic errors)

Outline Review: (propositional) logic Logic Equivalence Arguments Rule of inferences Fallacy Statements: simple and compound A statement (proposition) is a statement that is true or false, but

not both. Compound statement can be formed from simple statement as follows: Given statement p,q, ~p (not p, It is not the case that p) is called negation of p. p q (p and q) is conjunction of p and q. p q (p or q ) is disjunction of p and q pq (p exclusive or q)q (p exclusive or q) pq (if p then q) is conditional pq (p if and only if q) is biconditional

English to Symbols Write following sentences symbolically, letting h = It is hot and s = It is sunny. a. It is not hot but it is sunny. b. It is neither hot nor sunny. Truth Table definition of negation Negation of a statement is a statement that exactly

expresses the original statement to be false. summarized in a truth table: Truth Table for ~p Definition of conjunction (and) summarized in a truth table. Truth Table for p q

Definition of Disjunction (or) Here is the truth table for disjunction: Truth Table for p q Exclusive Or Consider statement (p q) ~(p q).

This means p or q, and not both p and q, i.e., exclusive or. This is often abbreviated as Evaluating the Truth of More General Compound Statements Now that truth values have been assigned to ~p, p q, and p q, consider the question of assigning truth values to more complicated expressions such as ~p q, (p q) ~(p q), and (p q) r. Such expressions are

called statement forms (or propositional forms). Conditional Statements Let p and q be statements. A sentence of the form If p then q is denoted symbolically by p q; p is called the hypothesis and q is called the conclusion, e.g., Meaning of Conditional Statements Based on its everyday, intuitive meaning. Manager: If you show up for work Monday morning,

then you will get the job When will you be able to say that the manager lies? Only if you show up on Monday morning, but you did not get the job. Truth Table for p q When if part (hypothesis) is false, the whole conditional statement is true, regardless of whether conclusion is true or false. In this case, we say the conditional statement is

vacuously true or true by default. thus the statement is vacuously true if you do not show up for work Monday morning. A Conditional Statement with a False Hypothesis Consider the statement: If 0 = 1 then 1 = 2. As strange as it may seem, since the hypothesis of this statement is false, the statement as a whole is true.

Only If p only if q means that p can take place only if q takes place also. i.e., if q does not take place, then p cannot take place. or, if p occurs, then q must also occur. Interpreting Only If Rewrite following statement in if-then forms:

John will break the worlds record for the mile run only if he runs the mile in under four minutes. If and only If (Biconditional) The biconditional has the following truth table: Truth Table for p q Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

r is a sufficient condition for s means that the occurrence of r is sufficient to guarantee the occurrence of s. r is a necessary condition for s means that if r does not occur, then s cannot occur either. The occurrence of r is necessary to obtain the occurrence of s. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Consider statement If John is eligible to vote, then he is at least 18 years old.

The truth of the condition John is eligible to vote is sufficient to ensure the truth of the condition John is at least 18 years old. In addition, the condition John is at least 18 years old is necessary for the condition John is eligible to vote to be true. If John were younger than 18, then he would not be eligible to vote. Only If and the Biconditional

According to the separate definitions of if and only if, saying p if, and only if, q should mean the same as saying both p if q and p only if q. The following annotated truth table shows that this is the case: Truth Table Showing that p q (p q) (q p) Exercise: If and Only If Rewrite the following statement as a conjunction of two

then statements: if- This computer program is correct if, and only if, it produces correct answers for all possible sets of input data. Precedence of logical operators The full hierarchy of operations for the five logical operators is:

Practice: p q r p rr p rr p q p Outline Review: (propositional) logic Logic Equivalence

Arguments Rule of inferences Fallacy Logical Equivalence Statements (1) 6 is greater than 2 (2) 2 is less than 6 are saying same thing, because of definition of phrases greater than and less

than. Logical Equivalence Statements (1) Dogs bark and cats meow and (2) Cats meow and dogs bark also say same thing (either both are true, or both be false) Not because of definition of the words. It has to do with logical form of the statements.

Any two statements whose logical forms are related in same way as (1) and (2) would mean the say thing. Logical Equivalence Compare truth tables for logic forms of two statements: 1. statement variables p and q are substituted for component statements Dogs bark and Cats meow, respectively. 2. truth table shows that for each combination of truth values for p and q, p q is true when, and only when, q p is true.

In such a case, statement forms are called logically equivalent, and we say that (1) and (2) are logically equivalent statements. Logical Equivalence

Testing Logical Equivalence Testing Whether Two Statement Forms P and Q Are Logically Equivalent 1. Construct a truth table with one column for P and another column for Q. 2. Check each combination of truth values of the statement variables to see whether the truth value of P is the same as the truth value of Q. a. If in every row the truth value of P is the same as the truth value of Q, then P and Q are logically equivalent.

b. If in some row P has a different truth value from Q, then P and Q are not logically equivalent. Prove non-Logical Equivalence Use a truth table to find rows for which their truth values differ, or Find concrete statements for each of the two forms, one of which is true and the other of which is false.

Showing Nonequivalence Statement forms ~(p q) ~p ~q and Showing Nonequivalence ~(p q) and ~p ~q Let p be statement 0 < 1 and

Let q be statement 1 < 0. Then which is true. which is false. contd De Morgans laws

named after Augustus De Morgan, who was first to state them in formal mathematical terms. Applying De Morgans Laws Write negations for following statements: John is 6 feet tall and he weighs at least 200 pounds. The bus was late or Toms watch was slow. Outline

Review: (propositional) logic Logic Equivalence Arguments Rule of inferences Fallacy Tautologies and Contradictions the truth of a tautological statement (and the falsity of a contradictory statement) are due to logical structure of the

statements themselves, and are independent of the meanings of the statements. Logical Equivalence Involving Tautologies and Contradictions If t is a tautology and c is a contradiction, show that p t p and p c c. Solution: Summary of Logical Equivalences

Simplifying Statement Forms Use Theorem 2.1.1 to verify the logical equivalence Exercise: Truth Table for p q p Construct a truth table for the statement form p q p. Solution: By order of operations: p q p

is equivalent to (p (q)) (p) Exercise: Division into Cases Show that statement forms pqr and (p r ) (q r). are logically equivalent. (Hint: draw truth table, and explain).

Solution contd p q and p q Rewrite the following statement in if-then form. Either you get to work on time or you are fired. Negate Conditional Statement

By definition, p q is false if, and only if, its hypothesis, p, is true and its conclusion, q, is false. It follows that symbolically, Negate If-Then Statements If my car is in the repair shop, then I cannot get to class. Negation:

If Sara lives in Athens, then she lives in Greece. Negation: Contrapositive of a Conditional Statement The fact is that Writing the Contrapositive If Howard can swim across the lake, then Howard can swim

to the island. Contrapositive: If today is Easter, then tomorrow is Monday. Contrapositive: The Converse and Inverse of a Conditional Statement Writing the Converse and the Inverse

If Howard can swim across the lake, then Howard can swim to the island. Converse: Inverse: If today is Easter, then tomorrow is Monday. Converse: Inverse:

Logically equivalent or not? conditional statement pq inverse: ~p~q converse: qp

contrapositive: ~q~p Outline Review: (propositional) logic Logic Equivalence Arguments Rule of inferences Fallacy

Valid and Invalid Arguments In mathematics and logic an argument is not a dispute. Argument: is a sequence of statements ending in a conclusion. If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal. Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal. In logic, we focus on whether an argument is valid or not i.e., whether the conclusion follows necessarily from

the preceding statements. Are they valid arguments? Consider the following three arguments If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal. Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal. If Scoopy is a man, then Scoopy is mortal. Scoopy is a mortal. Scoopy is a man.

If you see Tom, then you see Jerry. You see Tom. You see Jerry. Observation: arguments (1) and (3) follows same logic! Valid and Invalid Arguments For example, the argument If Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal. Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal.

has the abstract form If p then q p q An argument is called valid if, and only if, whenever all the premises are true (are satisfied), the conclusion is also true. Valid and Invalid Arguments

When an argument is valid and its premises are true, the truth of the conclusion is said to be inferred or deduced from the truth of the premises. Testing validity of argument form 1. Identify premises and conclusion of argument form. 2. Construct a truth table showing truth values of all premises and conclusion, under all possible truth values for variables. 3. A row of the truth table in which all the premises are true

is called a critical row. If there is a critical row in which conclusion is false, then it is possible for an argument of the given form to have true premises and a false conclusion, and so the argument form is invalid. o If conclusion in every critical row is true, then argument form is valid. o Example 1 Determining Validity or

Invalidity p q r qpr pr Solution: there is one situation (row 4) where the premises are true and the conclusion is false. contd

Modus Ponens An argument form consisting of two premises and a conclusion is called a syllogism. The first and second premises are called the major premise and minor premise, respectively. Most famous form of syllogism in logic is called modus ponens with following form: If p then q. p

q Modus Ponens It is instructive to prove that modus ponens is a valid form of argument, to confirm agreement between formal definition of validity and intuitive concept. To do so, we construct a truth table for premises and conclusion. Modus Tollens

another valid argument form called modus tollens. with following form: Consider If p then q. q p Exercise: Use modus ponens or modus tollens to fill in the blanks of

the following arguments so that they become valid inferences. a. If there are more pigeons than there are pigeonholes, then at least two pigeons roost in the same hole. There are more pigeons than there are pigeonholes. . b. If 870,232 is divisible by 6, then it is divisible by 3.

870,232 is not divisible by 3. . Summary of Rules of Inference

Valid Argument Forms Commonly used valid argument forms (also called rule of inference) Rule of Generalization a. p pq b. q

p q Used for making generalizations. in a), if p is true, then, more generally, p or q is true for any other statement q. e.g. to count upperclassmen in a class. You find out Anton is junior, and reason: Anton is a junior. (more generally) Anton is a junior or Anton is a senior.

Knowing that upperclassman means junior or senior, Anton is added into your list. Rule of Specialization following argument forms are valid: a. p q b. p q p q Used for specializing, discard extra info, to concentrate on

particular property of interest. e.g., You are looking for someone knows graph algorithms. You discover that Ana knows both numerical analysis and graph algorithms, and reason: Ana knows numerical analysis and Ana knows graph algorithms. (in particular) Ana knows graph algorithms. Rule of Elimination a.

pq q p b. pq p q

Idea: You have only two possibilities, and you can rule one out, then the other must be the case. Elimination example contd Example: suppose you know that for a particular number x,

If you also know that x is not negative, then x 2, so By elimination, you can then conclude that x-3=0 Rule of Transitivity pq qr

p r Many arguments contain chains of if-then statements. From the fact that one statement implies a second and the second implies a third, you can conclude that the first statement implies the third. Example Transitivity Here is an example: If 18,486 is divisible by 18, then 18,486 is divisible by 9. If 18,486 is divisible by 9, then the sum of the digits of

18,486 is divisible by 9. If 18,486 is divisible by 18, then the sum of the digits of 18,486 is divisible by 9. contd Proof by Division into Cases following argument form is valid: pq pr

qr r It often happens that you know one thing or another is true. If you can show that in either case a certain conclusion follows, then this conclusion must also be true. Example: Proof by Division into Casescontd For instance, suppose you know that x is a particular nonzero real number. The trichotomy property of the real numbers says that any number is positive, negative, or

zero. Thus (by elimination) you know that x is positive or x is negative. You can deduce that x2 > 0 by arguing as follows: x is positive or x is negative. If x is positive, then x2 > 0. If x is negative, then x2 > 0. x2 > 0. Contradictions and Valid Arguments p c, where c is a contradiction

p contradiction rule is logical heart of method of proof by contradiction. A slight variation also provides the basis for solving many logical puzzles by eliminating contradictory answers: If an assumption leads to a contradiction, then that assumption must be false. Where are my glasses? I know the following statements are true.

a. If I was reading the newspaper in the kitchen, then my glasses are on the kitchen table. b. If my glasses are on the kitchen table, then I saw them at breakfast. c. I did not see my glasses at breakfast. d. I was reading the newspaper in the living room or I was reading the newspaper in the kitchen. e. If I was reading the newspaper in the living room then my glasses are on the coffee table. Outline

Review: (propositional) logic Logic Equivalence Arguments Rule of inferences Fallacy Fallacies A fallacy is an error in reasoning that results in an invalid argument. Three common fallacies are

using ambiguous premises, and treating them as if they were unambiguous, circular reasoning (assuming what is to be proved without having derived it from the premises), jumping to a conclusion (without adequate grounds). two other fallacies (seemingly valid argument) converse error inverse error

Fallacies Converse Error Show that following argument is invalid: If Zeke is a cheater, then Zeke sits in the back row. Zeke sits in the back row. Zeke is a cheater. The fallacy underlying this argument form is called converse error, because conclusion of the argument would follow from

the premises if premise p q were replaced by its converse. Such a replacement is not allowed, because a conditional statement is not logically equivalent to its converse. also known as fallacy of affirming the consequent. Inverse Error Consider following argument: If interest rates are going up, then stock market prices will go down. Interest rates are not going up.

Stock market prices will not go down. the form of above argument is: pq p q Such fallacy is called inverse error: as it confuse premise p q with its inverse. But p q is not equivalent to its inverse also known as the fallacy of denying the antecedent.

Argument being valid vs Conclusion being true Is following argument valid? Is the conclusion true? If John Lennon was a rock star, then John Lennon had red hair. John Lennon was a rock star. John Lennon had red hair. Is following argument valid? Is the conclusion true? If New York is a big city, then New York has tall

buildings. New York has tall buildings. New York is a big city. Sound Argument Argument is valid does not mean the conclusion is true. as some premises might be false. If John Lennon was a rock star, then John Lennon had red hair. John Lennon was a rock star.

Valid not unsound! John Lennon had red hair. An argument is called sound if and only if, it is valid and all its premises are true; otherwise, an argument is called unsound. Summary of Rules of

Inference Valid Argument Forms