Strength and Conditioning for Youth Athletes

Special Considerations for Practicing in Youth Sport Rob Anderson June 9th 2018 Who am I? BSc (Hons) Strength & Conditioning Science MSc in Applied Sport and Exercise Physiology

UKSCA Accredited since 2010 Scottish Rugby Academy Strength and Conditioning Coach Borders & East Lothian World Rugby Educator Strength

and Conditioning Specific interest in Long Term Youth Athlete Development Who am I? Overview 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. Why youth athletes arent mini-adults The unique challenges facing youth athletes and their coaches Myths and fallacies of training youth athletes How to integrate physical preparation into technical sessions Practical session Q&A Why youth athletes arent mini adults Growth and maturation: 1. Physical (skeletal, muscular, hormonal, anaerobic enzymes) 2. Neural (neural plasticity)

3. Psychologically/Cognitive (attention, focus, discipline) Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Growth and maturation: 1. Periods of growth (height, weight), often rapid (PHV/PWV) 2. Increases in Testosterone and Growth hormone Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Rate of maturation: 1. Non-linear in nature 2. Early/on-time/late maturers Two players with chronological birthdates within 1 week. Player A has a skeletal age of 6.3 years and player B 12.1

years, using the Fels method of X-ray assessment. Aspetar Sports Medicine Journal Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Rate of maturation: 1. Non-linear in nature 2. Early/on-time/late maturers Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Relative Age Effect: 1. Over-representation of players born in early 2. Under-representation of players born later 3. Usually displayed in quartiles of 3 months each 4. Usually prevalent in sport where physical elements are key

Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Physical literacy: Current Society encourages extreme ends 1. Early specialisation single sport participation to high level 2. Sedentary children - little to no level of physical literacy 3. Resulting in lack of ability to do basic physical tasks Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Early specialisation: 1. Youth athletes specialising earlier 2. Earlier likelihood of over-use injuries (eg. Tendinopathy) 3. Poor management of workload (school, club, academy, region, representative)

Potential impacts: Lever lengths Range of motion Responses to training Muscle Mass Injury Fatigue Longevity Perceived Talent Relative Age Effect Dropout Talent ID Talent Pool size

Coordination Skill development Performance Selection/Deselection Physical Motor Control Social Mental

Confidence Self Esteem Perception Key Principles of physical preparation In an ideal training scenario: Optimum balance of training/recovery = increased performance, avoid injury 6 Year old Basketballer Key Principles of physical preparation Hans Selye General Adaptation Syndrome Key Principles of physical preparation

In an ideal training scenario: Optimum balance of training/recovery = increased performance, avoid injury Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Multi-faceted challenge, therefore we as coaches, need to be more holistic in our approach! Growth and Maturation Total Workload Rate of Maturation

Youth Athlete Physical Literacy Relative Age Effect Early Specialisation Unique challenges facing youth athletes/coaches Key take home messages:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Youth athletes are a melting pot of many biopsychosocial factors The effects of maturation are multi-faceted The rate of maturation isnt equal early/on-time/late Relative Age Effect prominent in more physical sports Both sedentary and early-specialisation problematic Overworked athletes tend to get injured, more better

Myths and fallacies of youth training (Insert exercise) is bad for your (insert bodypart) FALSE! Over the course of time, certain exercises have been given bad reputations, usually by people who dont know how to perform/coach them/pre-existing issues. Usually the full squat and deadlift. Think of a sporting skill Is poor technique an injury risk? Is improper progression an injury risk? Is training volume an injury risk? Is improper coaching an injury risk? Physical training is no different! Mediate the remaining risk with: 1. Appropriate training plan 2. Appropriately trained coach

3. Appropriate supervision Myths and fallacies of youth training Strength training isnt safe for children FALSE! UKSCA Position Paper BASES Position Paper ASCA Position Paper American Academy of Paediatrics NSCA Position Paper Myths and fallacies of youth training

Weight Training Stunts Growth FALSE! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Confusion regarding localised stunting of growth vs limiting adult stature Mechanism trauma to growth/plate and epyphysis Particularly susceptible during rapid growth 15% of all childhood fracture physis Most popular causes: 1. Falling from bikes, skateboards, trees in 1 study 2. In Sport: Hockey, football, baseball 33.5%

3. Skiing, biking, skateboarding 21.7% 4. Contact sport (american football) most reported You decide: this or this Mediate the remaining risk with: 6. Appropriate training plan 7. Appropriately trained coach 8. Appropriate supervision Myths and fallacies of youth training Weight Training Stunts Growth FALSE! In reality: 1. Bone tissue requires stress for adaptation 2. BMD shown higher in youth weightlifters vs matched controls/adults 3. Weight bearing suggested more important than calcium in BMD in adulthood

Contrary to the majority of these misconceptions however, research suggests that childhood to adolescence is in the fact the most opportune time for bones to respond to the compressive and tensile forces experienced during weight bearing exercise. - Strength and Conditioning for Youth Athletes (Lloyd and Oliver) Myths and fallacies of youth training Children should only do trunk/core training they dont benefit from strength FALSE! Reality Resistance training is a foundation for athletic development Stronger athletes better prepared for harder demands Improve health and injury risk

Education/Instruction should start early Participation should be ongoing as adaptations regress with detraining Traditional fears are unfounded Myths and fallacies of youth training Take home messages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dont demonise specific exercises, understand when/why/how to use Strength training is safe for youth athletes Strength does not stunt injure growth plates high impact collisions do! Youth athletes can benefit from strength training (now/adulthood/old age) Youth athletes should not just focus on core work alone Integrating physical preparation into technical sessions The Youth Physical Development Model (YPD) Lloyd and Oliver 2012 Integrating physical preparation into technical sessions

The Youth Physical Development Model (YPD) Lloyd and Oliver 2012 Brace Jump and land Push FMS Squat Pull

Hip hinge Movement skill Gym Based Example Field Based Example Pushing Vertical - overhead press Horizontal press up, bench press

press up, press up, throws Pulling Rowing exercises Pullups, pull downs Partner pulling, sled pulling Bracing

Static plank, side plank Dynamic stabilising trunk in other exercises Planks, side planks, dynamic stabilising in other movements Squatting (single leg) Bodyweight squat, goblet squat, overhead squat, front squat, back squat, lunge, step ups, lateral lunge, single leg squat

Bodyweight squat, goblet squat (hold implement), forward lunge, backward lunge, step ups, lateral lunge Hinging Romanian deadlift, deadlift, good morning, Arabesques,

Jumping and landing (single leg) Counter movement, broad jump, box jump, pogo hops, single leg hop forward/side/zigzag Counter movement, broad jump, single leg hop forward/side/zig zag What this looks like in the real world

You dont need an extra physical training session, use your warm up! 3 x 10 mins = 30 mins/week 3 x 15 mins = 45 mins/week 4 x 10 mins = 40 mins/week 4 x 15 mins = 60 mins/week What this looks like in the real world Traditional

Raise Laps Technical running drills High knee skip/Straight leg skip etc. Activate & Mobilise Circuit of exercises

Potentiate Few sprints/jumps What this looks like in the real world Traditional Creative Raise Laps Technical running

drills High knee skip/Straight leg skip etc. Game based feeding into technical running drill Activate & Mobilise Circuit of exercises

Constraint of game, partner based drills, self-selected, animal walks Potentiate Few sprints/jumps Partner based drills, hop and stick variants, addition of challenges, randomised

jumps/hurdles What this looks like in the real world Traditional Creative Engaging, Fluid Raise Laps Technical running drills High knee

skip/Straight leg skip etc. Game based feeding into technical running drill Game based, constraints added to create desired skill (eg. Jumps, blocking session) Activate & Mobilise

Circuit of exercises Constraint of game, partner based drills, self-selected, animal walks Self-selected, self-directed, flow based warm up, build in FMS to technical skill (eg. Lateral lunge dig; jump/land - block)

Potentiate Few sprints/jumps Partner based drills, hop and stick variants, addition of challenges, randomised jumps/hurdles Shadowed hopping drills Accelerate/decelerate Curved accelerations

Sharper accelerations Checklist FMS Warm Up Component How Pushing Pulling Bracing Squatting (2 and 1 leg)

Hinging Jumping and Landing (2 and 1 leg) *Its not necessary to cover each component every session. But consider rotating/trying each every week* Checklist - Principles FMS General Principles Feet

Stable base, neutral Knees Aligned with feet Hips Neutral Shoulders Neutral over hips

Head Neutral Questions? www.athleticevolution.co.uk [email protected] Instagram: @athleticevouk Twitter: @athleticevouk Practical Traditional warm up vs more creative 1. Raise

1. Warm up games eg. Corner ball, Knee taps, stuck in the mud, robin hood, oz tag 2. Add movement tasks as constraint eg. 5 squats/lunges/arabesques/ 2. Activate/Mobilise 1. Flow warm ups for mobility NADA flow warm up, Inchworm to spiderman 2. Animal shapes for mobility/activation bear, spider, frog, crab 3. Team/partner hurdle drills forward step overs/lateral step overs 4. FMS movements squat, lunge, lateral lunge, arabesque, press up 5. Single leg balance partner catch/throw, arabesque 3. Potentiate 1. Hop and stick forward/lateral/zig-zag 2. Repeat hops forward/lateral/zig-zag 3. Counter movement jump, broad jump, bunny hops, jumps with rotation, hurdle jump 4. Accelerate/decelerate/change direction

5. Partner shadow drills/chase Useful Links: Growth and maturation monitoring: https://kinesiology.usask.ca/growthutility/phv_ui.php Strengthlab Primary School Superheroes program: http://www.strengthlab.co.uk/ International Youth Conditioning Association: http://iyca.org/ Yann Le Meur Infographics: https://ylmsportscience.com/?s=youth+athletes Flow warm up: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lm7jQ92G0AM

Animal walks: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=14BjRxE7f1o References Bone mineral content in elite junior Olympic weightlifters: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8231753 Physeal injuries in childrens and youth sports: http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/40/9/749.full.pdf Investigation of growth, development and injury: https://fortiustrainingblog.files.wordpress.com/2015/12/investigation-of-growth-development-and-factors-associa ted-with-injury-in-elite-schoolboy-footballers.pdf Relative age effect in Uefa Championship: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4633259/ Youth Physical Development Model:

http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static/f/1109123/24625383/1395775941037/The+Youth+Physical+Development+Mo del.pdf?token=H2hNhNZz2cDv3KQlgNWHure3HA0%3D LTAD Model: Evidence/Application: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02640414.2010.536849 Position stands: American Academy of Paediatrics NSCA Position Paper UKSCA Position Paper ASCA Position Paper

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