The Brain 6-2 Adapted from Psychology by Peter Gray, 1999 Early Greeks were not impressed with the brain. They suggested that the brains main function was to cool the blood. They were much more impressed by the heart. They proposed that the heart was the source of feelings and thoughts. Hippocrates, however, observed the effect of head injuries on peoples thoughts and actions and noted, [F]rom the brain, and from the brain only, arise our
pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, grief's and tears. Through it, in particular, we think, see, hear.Eyes, ears, tongue, hands and feet act in accordance with the discernment [judgment] of the brain. Parts of the Brain Parts of the Brain Hindbrain At the rear base of the skull Involved in the most basic
processes of life Includes: Cerebellum posture and balance Medulla breathing, reflexes Pons connects messages between the spinal cord and the brain, & produces chemicals for sleep Parts of the Brain Midbrain Small part above the pons Integrates sensory information and relays it
upward Midbrain + pons + medulla = most of the brain stem Reticular activating system (RAS) spans across the midbrain, pons and medulla Alerts the rest of the brain to incoming signals Parts of the Brain Forebrain Covers the brains central core
Limbic system Forebrain Thalamus All sensory information except for smell All info from eyes, ears, & skin go through the thalamus then into the correct part of the cortex Relay for information and from the cortex
Hypothalamus Cerebral cortex Cerebrum Limbic system Forebrain Thalamus Hypothalamus
Below the thalamus Controls hunger, thirst, sexual behavior Controls the bodys temperature, when warm sweat, when cold shiver Cerebral cortex Cerebrum Limbic system Forebrain Thalamus
Hypothalamus Cerebral cortex Outer layer of the forebrain Gives the ability to learn and story complex/abstract information Ability to project thinking into the future Allows us to read, see, and understandthis PowerPoint Conscious thinking process located here Less than a half-inch thick Cerebrum Inner layer of the forebrain
Limbic system Forebrain Thalamus
Hypothalamus Cerebral cortex Cerebrum Limbic system Found in the core of the forebrain Composed of many structures Regulates our emotions and motivations Includes:
Hypothalamus Amygdala Thalamus hippocampus Forebrain: Limbic System Hypothalamus Amygdala controls violent emotions such as rage/violence
Thalamus Hippocampus important in the formation of memories Cerebrum the forebrain and the midbrain Two hemispheres/two sides Both sides connected by fibers called the corpus callosum Lobes in the Brain
Lobes: different regions into which the cerebral cortex is divided The Lobes Occipital lobe vision Parietal lobe Body sensations Frontal lobe
Planning of movements Working memory (recent events) Organization Creative thinking Temporal lobe Hearing Advanced visual processing Memory Emotion
speaking The Lobes Occipital lobe Parietal lobe Primary somatosensory cortex Receives information Frontal lobe Primary motor cortex Fine movement control
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