Summary Stage - University of Kentucky

Directly Coded Summary Stage Nicole Catlett, CTR Kentucky Cancer Registry Spring Training April 2015 Objectives What is Staging? What is Summary Staging? How do I assign Summary Stage? What are the Summary Staging Groups? Important Points

What is Staging? A method of grouping cancer cases by primary site to determine how far the cancer has spread at the time of diagnosis. Two Primary Systems What is Summary Staging? SEER Summary Stage 2000 is the most basic way of categorizing how far a cancer has spread from its point of origin. Young JL Jr, Roffers SD, Ries LAG, Fritz AG, Hurlbut AA (eds). SEER

Summary Staging Manual - 2000: Codes and Coding Instructions, National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No. 01-4969, Bethesda, MD, 2001. What is Summary Staging? Summary staging uses all information available in the medical record: in other words, it is a combination of the most precise clinical and pathologic documentation of the extent of disease. Young JL Jr, Roffers SD, Ries LAG, Fritz AG, Hurlbut AA (eds). SEER Summary Staging Manual - 2000: Codes and Coding Instructions, National Cancer Institute, NIH Pub. No.

01-4969, Bethesda, MD, 2001. Summary Stage Background SS77 - Diagnosed prior to 2001 SS2000 - Diagnosed from 1/1/2001 Collaborative Staging - Diagnosed from 1/1/2004 SS 2000 Directly Coded

- Diagnosed 1/1/2015 * Currently Summary Stage is being derived by Collaborative Staging * What is Summary Staging? General categories of in situ, local, regional and distant Codes range from 0 9 Combines best clinical and pathological documentation Applies to all sites and histologies (unless

otherwise noted) Used by central cancer registries How Cancer Spreads Local invasion By direct extension Via Lymphatic system Via blood-borne metastases Intracavity metastatic seeding Summary Stage Answers four basic questions about the extent

1.Where did the cancer start? 2.Where did the cancer go? 3.How did the cancer get to the other organ or structure? Continuous line of cancer cells from the primary site? Probably direct extension Cancer cells break away from primary cancer and traveled through blood stream or body fluids? Probably distant 4.What are the stage and correct code for this cancer? Features of Summary Stage

List of Ambiguous Terms for determining involvement Site specific chapters (by ICD-O-3 primary site) - Regional tissues and nodes are listed for each site - Additional information such as definitions, diagrams and notes Site specific rules (relatively few) - Hematopoietic diseases are always distant (code 7)

- Lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma have histology specific schemes any mention of lymph nodes is indicative of involvement only codes 1, 5 and 7 apply Unknown primary site is always unknown stage (code 9) Assign the highest applicable code Ambiguous Terminology for Involvement SOME OF THE TERMS THAT CAN BE USED: - Compatible with - Consistent with - Features of - Probable

- Suspected - Most likely - Presumed - Suspicious SOME OF THE TERMS NOT TO BE USED: - abuts - approaching - attached

- encased/encasing - equivocal - possible - questionable - worrisome A complete list can be found on page 15 in the Introduction to

Summary Staging section of SEER Summary Staging 2000 Manual. Available on SEER website: (seer.cancer.gov) Timing Rule All information through completion of surgery (ies) (first course of treatment) or

within four months of diagnosis in the absence of disease progression or whichever is longer Timing Rule Stage may be determined after treatment with radiation, chemotherapy, hormones, or immunotherapy IF You follow the 4-month rule and do not stage after disease progression Timing Rule Example

2/10 Prostate biopsy c/w Adenocarcinoma grade 3 3/01 3/15 7/01 Bone scan negative Radiation to prostate Patient complaining of hip pain

7/04 Bone scan: metastatic disease from prostate cancer Would you include all of this information to determine stage? Where do I start? Where did the cancer start? The correct primary site or The correct histology What is the stage? How far has the cancer spread?

Where do I look? Pathology Reports Cytology Reports Bone Marrow Biopsies Autopsy Reports History and Physical Admitting Notes Discharge Summary Consultative Reports

KEEP LOOKING! X-rays and imaging studies Scopes and manipulative procedures Laboratory reports Operative reports Treatment Physicians office records/letters Cancer Conferences Physician Advisor Summary Stage Groups Stage Groups In situ

0 Local 1 Regional by Direct Extension 2 Regional Lymph Nodes only involved 3 Regional by both Direct Extension and to Regional 4 Lymph Nodes Regional, NOS 5 Distant Site and/or Distant Lymph Nodes

7 Unknown or Not Applicable 9 Summary Stage Groups Code 8 Borderline Benign & Not applicable Added in 2003 Never use for malignant

tumors CNS IN SITU = Stage 0

Only determined by a pathologist No invasion of the basement membrane No evidence of invasion, extension, or nodal involvement Carcinoma and Melanoma only No foci of invasion No microinvasion IN SITU Be careful when reading

1. Large in situ carcinoma of the pathology reports breast with 3 of 15 axillary nodes positive for cancer 2. Final Diagnosis: Carcinoma in situ with a foci of microinvasion on the lateral margin Would you stage these in situ? 1.______________ 2.______________

LOCALIZED = Stage 1 Rule out in situ is there invasion? Rule out any nodal involvement Rule out extension to regional organ(s) or tissues Rule out distant disease Cancer must be confined to the organ of origin

LOCALIZED If still within the organ of origin Blood vessel invasion Perineural lymphatic invasion Vascular invasion Multiple tumors, same cell type Metastases within the organ of origin Multifocal Does not change the stage Potential for spread

REGIONAL DISEASE Subdivided into Stages 2-5 Stage 2 - Regional By Direct Extension Stage 3 - Invasion of Regional Lymph Nodes (first drainage area)

Stage 4 Both Extension & Nodes Stage 5 - Regional NOS REGIONAL, NOS = Stage 5 Insufficient workup or information

Patient did not continue with workup Clinical diagnosis only Site Specific Lymph Nodes Regional Lymph Nodes Distant Lymph Nodes Not listed as regional or distant - Synonymous with a listed node - Non Synonymous, assume distant SOLID TUMORS

Palpable, visible, swelling, or shotty lymph nodes are not considered involved Enlarged and lymphadenopathy should be ignored EXCEPT for lung Matted lymph nodes, or for example, mass in the mediastinum are considered involvement TUMOR Lymph Node Involvement

INVOLVED TUMOR NO INVOLVEMENT SOLID TUMORS Fixed, matted mass in the mediastinum,

Retro peritoneum and/or mesentery ANY TUMOR Palpable, visible, swelling, shotty (without clinical or path statement)

LUNG Enlarged, lymphadenopa thy ANY TUMOR (except lung) Enlarged, lymphadenopat hy

LYMPHOMAS Any mention of lymph nodes Lymph Nodes Inaccessible Bladder Kidney Prostate Esophagus Stomach

Lung Liver Ovary Corpus Uteri DISTANT = Stage 7 Systemic disease: diffuse; advanced Spread: to distant organs or tissues to distant nodes seeding in a body cavity peritoneal

cavity or pleural cavity UNKNOWN = Stage 9 Insufficient information to stage Patient expired before workup Patient refused workup Limited workup due to age, or comorbid conditions UNKNOWN = Stage 9 CONTACT THE MANAGING PHYSICIAN CHECK ALL INFORMATION CAREFULLY

ASSIGN UNKNOWN STAGE SPARINGLY Document in the text why unknown stage REMEMBER UNKNOWN PRIMARY SITE (C80.9) ALWAYS UNKNOWN STAGE LEUKEMIA ALWAYS DISTANT MULTIPLE MYELOMA

ALWAYS DISTANT IMPORTANT POINTS Read first section carefully Schemas organized by primary site codes - Except for those based on histology - Example: Kaposi Sarcoma (pg 274) ALL sites (or histologies) have a staging schema Helpful anatomy illustrations IMPORTANT POINTS

All malignant tissue is not removed - Include information from gross observation Disagreement concerning excised tissue - Pathology report has precedence over operative report Operative/pathology disproves clinical information - Operative/pathology has precedence over clinical information ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SEER Training Website Contact Info Nicole Catlett, CTR Senior Regional Coordinator Central KY Kentucky Cancer Registry [email protected] QUESTIONS ?

Thank You!

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