Survivor: Who Will Be the Best Competitor? How environmental change affects competition Competition Organisms require resources from their environment to grow, survive and reproduce Plants in the rainforest require sunlight, water and nutrients
Different species of plants compete for these resources Competition Examples Within Species Competition Video Clover sprouts compete above and below ground. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d26AhcKeEbE&feature=related Between Species Competition Video Damselfish defend territories to compete with other fish. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9YR7VfsR5iA&feature=related
Competition Examples Competition Examples What examples of competition can you think of? Why is it important to understand competition? Predict if species can coexist Predict what will happen if species are lost (extinction) species are introduced Invasive species
Biological controls Environmental Change = Competition Change If global warming decreased rainfall, how would that affect plant competition? Sea lamprey are an invasive species that attack fish and suck their blood. If sea lamprey, invade Lake Michigan how would that affect fish competition? Species Loss in Stickleback Fish
Historically 2 species that differ in Color, size, shape, behavior Feeding & mating habitats One species mates in the open; the other species mates in the vegetation Invasive Species Changed Mating Habitats Recent crayfish introduction Ecological changes:
- Vegetation loss - Increased turbidity - Water color Historical Conditions Current Conditions Loss of habitat increased species competition Bigger males compete better Bigger males = more aggression = gain a territory Need a territory to build a nest and attract females
Loss of habitat increased species competition 0.03 0.02 0.01 Aggression After habitat loss 0 Before habitat
loss -0.01 -0.02 0 1 largest 2 3
4 smallest Male Size Rank 5 Loss of habitat increased species competition 0.03 0.02 Benthic
Species 0.01 Aggression Limnetic Species After habitat loss 0
Before habitat loss -0.01 -0.02 0 1 largest 2
3 4 smallest Male Size Rank 5 Loss of habitat increased species competition 0.03 0.02
0.01 Aggression After habitat loss 0 Before habitat loss -0.01
-0.02 0 1 largest 2 3 4 smallest
Male Size Rank 5 Loss of habitat increased species competition 0.03 0.02 0.01 Aggression After habitat
loss 0 Before habitat loss -0.01 -0.02 0 1
largest 2 3 4 smallest Male Size Rank 5
Competition: The Game Species A vs. Species B Environment 1 Species A = Red-filtered vision Species B = Blue-filtered vision species Multiple types of available food items 60 seconds to collect as many food items as you can You need 5 units of food to survive until tomorrow You must Pick up one food item at a time and return it to your stomach (cup) Walk carefully Not physically interfere with other organisms Competition: The Game
Use your worksheet to record food items eaten by each member of your species Competition: The Game Species A vs. Species B Environment 2 A disease has drastically reduced the number of one of the prey items. You must forage for food in this new environment. Competition: The Game
Use your worksheet to record food items eaten by each member of your species in Environment 2. Graph total # of food items of each color eaten by all members of your species. How do results compare between environments? (Groups prepare to report out) Competition: The Game How do results for each species compare? Competition: The Game What other changes to the game environment can
you imagine? Small groups develop ideas Entire group votes on one question to test Make predictions Test question and interpret results Competition is Costly Competing takes energy and time Poor competitors get less of the resources (food, territory) This leads to lower survival and reproduction How can organisms reduce this cost?
Reduce competition by specializing Eats detritus (dead material on pond bottom) Eats shrimp that swim in pond Reduce competition by specializing = Niche differentiation Eats invertebrates in the sediment of the lake bottom
Eats plankton that swim in open water of the lake Competition in Bioenergy Plots How might competition be important in bioenergy plots?
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