Sustainable Low Cost Techology for Development of Sanitary ...

Sustainable Low Cost Techology for Development of Sanitary ...

SUSTAINABLE LOW COST TECHOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FEMININE HYGIENE PRODUCTS Dr Mona Suri Academic Vice President Royal University for Women, Kingdom of Bahrain 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 1 Emphasis on research by women for women issues Women empowerment

Product Innovation Research Environmental issues 03/01/2020 AcademicCommunityGovernment collaboration RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 2 Concept of Design Design is aesthetics + Functionality Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing

physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability. 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 3 Overview of the study Done in semi urban cities of India Felt needs of the women belonging to lower SES were addressed Intervention study to create innovation in design Prototypes of Sanitary napkins were created Classic example of technology transfer to the community Empowerment of women by providing them with a solution and a business proposition 03/01/2020

RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 4 Low Cost Menstrual Hygiene Products Limited literature on Menstrual Hygiene Management. Needs more emphasis in the environment, water and sanitation programmes. Research and Development efforts limited to commercial ventures in India thus unable to market products that are affordable by the poor. Social marketing and franchising as used in marketing of Oral Rehydration Salts, campaigning against diseases 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 5

Methodology Need Assessment of the use of feminine hygiene products Market survey of the availability of products Development of the prototype Evaluation of physical properties, hygiene properties and cost Transfer of Technology to the community 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 6 Need Assessment Semi Urban areas were chosen Working women of Lower SES Sample of over 200 women was chosen through purposive sampling Focused group discussions and Interviews were used as tools of data collection Market survey of the available products was done

Data was analysed to identify the felt needs of the target group 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 7 Feminine Hygiene Products Cost profile of the branded product suits the needs of only high end of the market Need to develop a low cost sustainable indigenous technology Cost can be brought down by Recycling Use of alternate material Desirable properties of raw material Natural fiber, Biodegradable, Very low cost Options analyzed Cotton Knitwear waste 03/01/2020

RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 8 Use and availability of Knitwear waste Tirupur Knitwear Industry in Tamilnadu is one of the largest cotton garment manufacturing industry in India 10-20 % of the cotton knitwear is generated as a waste Can be recycled to create more products Need to process it effectively for product profile chosen For Feminine hygiene products need to change of form, maintain hygiene properties, develop low cost technology 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 9 Raw Materials Cotton

Highly absorbent, naturally breathing, cohesive and easily sterializable fiber Not used due to high cost Low cost cotton from knitwear waste High value at low price 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 10 Sanitary Napkin Technical Details ABSORBENT LAYER Wood-pulp, cotton linters, viscose TOP LAYER Absorbs & retains the liquid Spreads fluid by capillary

Polypropylene, Polyethylene action Porous Layer Fluid is quickly drawn in Allows Passage to Liquids BACK LAYER Polyethylene Non porous Prevents leakage 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 11

Manufacture of Sanitary Napkins using Knitwear Waste ABSORBENT LAYER Cotton Knitwear Waste Garnetin g Washin g Drying of Hydro extraction fiber Lap

formatio n TOP LAYER PP Sheets Cutting Cutting PP Sealing of the laid web between the top & bottom layer BACK LAYER PE Sheets 03/01/2020 Cutting PE

Sterilization(as per requirement) RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 12 Comparison of Branded and Developed Sanitary Napkins Developed prototypes and 16 varieties of sanitary napkins of 4 major companies were evaluated using standard test methods in terms of: Physical properties (pH, Flexibility, Water Retention, Disposability) Hygiene Parameters (Bacterial and Fungal bioburden) Cost 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 13 Physical Parameters of Cotton

Knitwear Waste Vs. Branded Napkins Parameter pH Branded sanitary napkin (regular) 6.06 to 8.11 Cotton Knitwear waste napkin 7.0 Absorbency time (seconds) 4-30 15-20 Water retention (%)

175 to 631 369 Flexibility (gms) 1369 to 3601 1869 Disposability < 5 minutes < 5 minutes Brightness (%) 74 84

03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 14 Hygiene Parameters of Cotton Knitwear Waste Vs. Prototype Branded Napkins Napkin type Branded sanitary napkins (Regular type) Knitwear waste napkinnon sterile Sterile 03/01/2020 Aerobic Plate Count (c.f.u/ml) Colony Forming unit 10 - 1660

Yeast and Mould Count (c.f.u/ml) Colony Forming unit 0 - 730 75 60 70 0 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 15 Limited Production Cost of Developed Prototypes Cost of the beltless colored knitwear waste napkin = Approx. Re. 1

Cost of the beltless white knitwear waste napkin = Approx. Rs.1.10 Cost of the belted colored knitwear waste napkin = Approx. Rs.1.20 Cost of the belted white knitwear waste napkin = Approx. Rs.1.30 1 BHD= 175 Rupees (Cost of napkin 6-6.5 fills) 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 16 Belted Type Sanitary Napkins Using Knitwear Waste A. Laps of colored and white cotton knitwear waste fiber B. Belted napkin in colored cotton knitwear waste 03/01/2020 C. Belted napkin in white cotton knitwear

waste RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 17 Belt Less Type Sanitary Napkins Using Knitwear Waste A. In colored cotton knitwear waste B. In white cotton knitwear waste C. Backside of Napkin marked with color to differentiate size 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 18 Transfer of technology to Community

The machines for Garneting, washing, Lap formation sealing, autoclave were sourced from small scale manufacturers Assembly line was created for effective manufacturing Packaging was done with Instruction sheets Instruction sheet for Belt less napkins The unit with machines could be set up in a room in any village or sub urban area Total cost of machines was about 100, 000 Rupees (500 BHD) Workshops were conducted for local women to train Instruction sheet for them for manufacturing, Packaging and selling Belted napkins

Distribution networks were created 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 19 Conclusion Low cost sanitary napkins can be developed using alternate materials like cotton knitwear waste and Bagasse pulp as the absorbent web. Quality of the sanitary napkins thus made are comparable in quality to branded sanitary napkins in terms of various physical and hygiene parameters. This will enable the women from the lower economic strata to use disposable sanitary napkins, thus ensuring improved status of menstrual hygiene. The assembly line can easily be established in rural, semi urban areas and trainers trained to implement it as an entrepreneurial venture. This fulfils the needs of women and society.

03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 20 RUWs initiatives towards Community based studies Design and Development of Industrial Clothing for BAPCO Employees o At BAPCO the Protective Clothing is worn by the employees as per the norms o RUW approached the term design with functional utility and problem solving o Provided more options for special clothing/ uniforms for BAPCO employees Male workers Women employees (Present & Prospective) Training of Bahraini Women in Fashion Design o Project was done in collaboration with the Supreme Council for Women and Tamkeen o 60 Bahraini women were trained 03/01/2020

RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 21 Research emphasis With Emphasis on research at RUW more such Intervention studies are being taken up to address the felt needs of the community Design as a function is being emphasized upon Traditional arts of Bahrain and the region are being documented and revived (Weaving arts, Naqda work) Futuristically RUW would like to make a niche by doing such community based design studies 03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 22 Thank you

03/01/2020 RUW CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND SOCIETY 23

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