Symbionts, mutualists, parasites: Plant-fungus relationships amongst the mycorrhizae and endophytes Relationships between plants and fungi Symbionts (e.g. mycorrhizae) Endophytes Parasites and pathogens Ectovs
Endomycorrhizae 2,000 species of plants -- mainly trees 18 families Gymnosperms: ALL Pinaceae Angiosperms: ALL Fagaceae (beech), Betulaceae (birch), Salicaceae (willow), Dipterocarpoideae (lauan) MOST Myrtaceae (eucalypt) MANY legumes SOME Aceraceae Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae
Tiliaceae Ulmaceae 7 other families >300,000 species of plants -- both herbaceous and woody 380 families NOT endomycorrhizal many ALL Brassicaceae Commelinaceae (Tradescantia), Juncaceae (rush) Cyperaceaee (sedge) Proteaceae, SOME Amaranthaceae (Celosia),
Caryophyllaceae (carnations), Chenopodiaceae (spinach), Polygonaceae (buckwheat), members of 3 other families MOST ectomycorrhizal spp. Overall, >95% plant species are thought to have mycorrhizal associate Mycorrhizae predominant forms Zygomycete affinities Asco/basidiomycte affinities Direct penetration of
tissues and cells Root cells are surrounded but not invaded Fungi in Rhynie chert, 400MYa Rhynia with Paleomyces Agalophyton with Glomites rhyniensis
General roles of mycorrhizae Mycorrhizal plant can exploit several times the volume of soil available to a non-mycorrhizal plant Environment to plant
Plant to/from fungus Between plants ecological integration Pathogen relations Physical protection Antibiotics Increased plant vigour Mycorrhizae may also
induce antibiotic production by the plant alter the quantity and quality of root exudates affects rhizosphere microflora improve host vigor for improved resistance Mycorrhizae as ecosystem integrators
Major types of mycorrhizae Ectomycorrhizae Arbuscular (endomycorrhizae) Ericoid Orchidoid Arbutoid
Monotropoid Ectomycorrhizae Only on actively growing (feeder) roots)
Persistent months to years Fungal mantle and Hartig net Typically, fungal dikaryomycete symbionts do not produce cellulase Basidiomycetes Amanita, Russula, Suillus, Pisolithus
Ascomycetes Tuber melanosporium Root colonization by ectomycorrhizae Amanita muscaria on Pinus strobus Heterorhizy plant growth substances produced/induced by fungus promote/retain juvenile roots
reduced root hairs prevent wood growth Pisolithus tinctorius has been shown to establish mycorrhizas with ~ 50 different tree species DJ Lodge Ascomycete ectomycorrhiza
Ascomycetes Tuber melanosporum $2000/kg retail fresh Modified apothecium gleba Mycorrhizal on oak, 125g/tree/year, full production in 10yr Cultivation, 1000 trees/hectare, 3m apart Crowded growth leads to faster
fruiting Arbuscular mycorrhizae Common especially on herbaceous plants; some trees e.g. sycamore Formerly Zygomycota/Glomales
now Glomeromycota Large sorocarps and spores produced adjacent to roots, but subterranean Obligate biotrophs, each interaction temporally limited days to weeks Penetrates plant roots
/cells AM root colonization patternCyclical formation of arbuscules followed by degradation *may form vesicles Formerly called Vesicular Srbuscular mycorrhizae
Not all endomycorrhizae form vesicles May be final stage in limited term symbiosis May be characteristic of specific plant:fungus interactions www.apsnet.org/education/IllustratedGlossary/PhotosE-H/endomycorrhiza (Vesicular) arbuscular mycorrhizae
Spore transport may be facilitated by burrowing animals Diversity is much larger than realized, until recently Other mycorrhizaze groups
Bidartondo and Bruns 2001 Ericoid mycorrhizae Important for nitrogen acquisition in boggy soil includes invertebrate predation Colonized by some ascomycetes, e.g. Hymenoscyphus ericae (also forms mycorrhizae with
liverworts) loose net over the growing (distinctive) hair roots fungus penetrates cortical cells fills with densely coiled hyphae (not arbuscules) Ericoid mycorrhizae Hyphae penetrate roots, but never enter the cells Hartig net Plant identification helps understanding
mycorrhizal relationship www.ffp.csiro.au/research/mycorrhiza/intro/monotropa.jp Arbutoid mycorrhizae develop on short primary roots of Arbutus and Pyrola
mantle of fungal tissue Hartig net differential characteristic: fungi penetrate the walls of root epidermal cells, forming branching hyphal complexes in the cell fungi that form arbutoid mycorrhizae: ascomycetes and
basidiomycetes that form ectomycorrhizae on other species (such as conifers) Orchid mycorrhizae Seedling orchid is entirely dependent on mycorrhiza for nutrition months years Achlorophyllous orchids
Fungal partners highly fungus specific can parasitize ectomycorrhizal fungi (CHO from surrounding trees) Rhizoctonia spp; some Armillaria root pathogens, including some
pathogenic isolates Both plant and fungus are live, but fungus degrades Corallorhiza maculata Orchidoid mycorrhizae a balancing act Monotropa depends on mycorrhizae Arrowhead: penetration peg
Endophytic fungi www.sci.utu.fi/biologia/ekologia/endofyytti.htm Perennial ryegrass Adapted to a wide range of soils, including heavy clay and poorly drained soils, but prefers well-drained soils of
medium to high fertility. It tolerates soil pH ranging from 4.5 to 8.4 Short-lived, cool-season perennial under western Canadian conditions Readily crosses with fescue spp, meadow and tall fescue The fescue mystery
Some fescue has relatively low palatability to livestock performance of animals grazing it was erratic and often disappointingly low cattle grazing fescue occasionally developed lameness and sometimes lost portions of their feet or tails during fall and winter mares grazing tall fescue pastures often aborted, produced stillborn foals, had thickened or retained placentas, or produced an inadequate quantity of milk
Acremonium coenophialum does not affect either the growth or appearance of the grass requires a laboratory analysis to detect its presence seed transmitted and apparently not transmitted in any other way
Vomitoxin: deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium scab or head blight in barley, wheat, oats, and rye Deoxynivalenol T2 toxin
[DON] Permitted in food and feed 1 ppm - wheat products for human consumption. 5 ppm - Grain and grain byproducts destined for swine and other animal species (except cattle and chickens)
not to exceed 20 percent of the diet for swine, not to exceed 40 percent for other animal species. 10 ppm - Grain and grain byproducts for ruminating beef and feedlot cattle older than 4 months and for chickens not to exceed 50 percent of the diet.
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