Taxonomic Classification

Taxonomic Classification

Readings Readings on web page. BSCI: Chapter 2. CONS: Chapter 3. Anyone need a book? Biological Species Concept

Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups. Ernst Mayr, 1963 Conservation Implications? Complete reproductive isolation . . . would not be satisfied even by some recognized

species that are known to sustain a low frequency of interbreeding with related species. Statement by the FWS and NMFS regarding interpretation of DPSs in response to public comment. http://endangered.fws.gov/policy/pol005.html

Mechanisms Promoting Species Identity Biological Reproductive Isolation Cohesion Reproductive Isolation Natural Selection

Morphological Species Concept Hedgehog Cactus Phylogenetic Species Concept mammary glands live bearing

placenta Non Mammalian Vertebrates Egg Laying Mammals

Marsupials Placental Mammals Review: Species Concept Why is a species a species?

Biological: Reproductive Isolation Cohesion: Reproductive Isolation + Natural Selection Is a species a species? Morphological: Practical Species Identification Phylogenetic: Evolutionary History

Species Concepts Applied A. R. Templeton, in Speciation and Its Consequences D. Otte, J. A. Endler, Eds. (Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 1989) pp. 3-27. Phylogenetic Methods: The Role of Molecular Data Hybrid Species Genetic Management

Evolutionary Significant Units Evolutionary Significant Units A set of populations that is morphologically and genetically distinct from other similar populations. A set of populations with a distinct evolutionary history.

DPSs Species includes . . . any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate . . . Discreteness It is markedly separated from other populations . . . Quantitative measures of genetic or morphological discontinuity may provide evidence of this separation.

Significance The discrete population segment differs markedly from other populations of the species in its genetic characteristics. http://endangered.fws.gov/policy/pol005.html Extinction

Causes of Extinction Deterministic factors (stacked deck) Realized growth rate is negative Deaths > Births

Stochastic factors (bad luck) Intrinsic genetic stochasticity demographic stochasticity Extrinsic environmental variation

(EV) catastrophe change in environment K Deterministic decline

to extinction ln(N) time Population fluctuates due to demographic and genetic stochasticity

K ln(N) time K ln(N)

catastrophes time Population fluctuation due to environmental variation

Catastrophe Severe and rare environmental variation (Remember for Vortex) Environmental Change and Natural Selection Environmental change can result in negative growth rates.

Species will go extinct when unable to adapt to such environmental change. Genetic diversity may buffer populations to environmental change. Deterministic Threats Change in physical environment climate change

habitat destruction pollution Change in biotic environment Competition Predation (including disease and human hunting) Mutualism

Causes of Extinction (Genetic Swamping) Species / Population A Extinction by genetic swamping

Hybridization Species B Species / Population B Time Environmental Variation

4000 Number of flower heads 3500 3000 2500 2000

1500 1000 500 0 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 How might climate change

affect this sunflower?

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