Taxonomy - Mr. Goffe's Home Page

Taxonomy - Mr. Goffe's Home Page

Start-up Write the name for each of the following: b a c d e

Taxonomy Finding Order in Diversity The science of Classification The Need for a system Names that dont fit: 2 1

3 5 4 What are these: Animals with many names: Cougar Puma Mountain

lion Panther Catamount History of Classification Aristotle (384 BC 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. He wrote on many different subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater,

music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology Animals Air dwellers Water dwellers Land dwellers Plants Herbs Shrubs

Trees Saint Augustine 354-430- a philosopher and theologian Classified things as: Useful

Harmful Superflus John Ray coined 1627-1705 the term "species Assemblage of plants or animals derived

from similar parents and having the ability to pass on parental characteristics to the next generation Organisms that can mate and have fertile offspring Today we add that they should have the same # of chromosomes Species - example Mules are considered sterile Shasta the Liger

Naming organisms Before the 1700s science used long names to describe exactly what the organism was like. Apis pubescens thorace subgrise abdomen fusco pedipus posticus glabris utrinque margine cilatis

Carolus Linnaeus Father of Taxonomy aka. Carl von Linne 1707 - 1778 Binomial Nomenclature Use Latin or Greek Used world wide Only two names

Classification System Binomial Nomenclature Two name names Use Latin or Greek Italicized or underlined Only two names First

name Genus Capitalized second name species lower case

Genus species Apis mellifera species of the Apis Genus Apis andreniformis Apis florea, or dwarf honey bee Apis Apis

dorsata or giant honey bee cerana eastern honey bee Apis koschevnikovi Apis mellifera, western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Linnaeus Hierarchy Seven

Levels of classification or taxa Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup

Start-up Put the following categories into the right order from most inclusive to the most exclusive: Class Genus Phylum Family Order

Classification of Humans Domain: Eukaryote (cells with a nucleus) Kingdom: Animalia (eukaryotic cells, lacking cell wall,

multicellular, heterotrophic) Phylum: Chordata (animals with a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, and gill slits Subphylum: Vertebrata (possessing a backbone, which may be cartilaginous, to protect the dorsal nerve cord) Class: Mammalia (endothermic vertebrates with hair and mammary glands Subclass: Placentalia (giving birth to live young Order: Primates (collar bone, eyes face forward, grasping hands with fingers, and two types of teeth: incisors and molars) Family: Hominidae (upright posture, large brain, stereoscopic vision, flat face, hands and feet have different specializations) Genus: Homo (s-curved spine, "man") Species: Homo sapiens (high forehead, well-developed chin,

skull bones thin) Classification of Man Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species - Animalia - Chordata

- Mammalia - Primate - Hominidae - Homo - sapien Classification of a Warbler How are living things classified: Observations Physical similarities and differences

Breeding Behavior Geographical Distribution etc. Evolutionary Most classification (phylogeny) current method Seems to be more reliable Looking at organisms: morphology Number

of cells Germs cell layers Digestive structures Coelom Segmentation Skeleton Appendages Symmetry Species organisms that can mate and have fertile offspring

Variety a smaller group of animals of the same species Strain different types of bacteria of the same species Variety or breed

Number of Cells Protozoa unicellular Metazoa - multicelled Germ Cell Layers Diploblastic Two layers

Ectoderm Endoderm Triploblastic Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Three layers Digestive structures Incomplete

Mouth only Complete Mouth Anus Coelom cavity between body wall and the gut Acoelomates no coelom

Flatworms Pseudocoelomates cavity, but not in the right place Roundworms Coelomates Everything else

Segmentation and Skeleton Either segmented or not segmented Skeleton Endoskeleton Chordates Exoskeleton Arthropods and Mollusks

Appendages and symmetry Appendages Tentacles Fins Legs wings Symmetry Asymmetrical Radial symmetry

Bilateral symmetry Breeding Behavior Differences in the way animals attract mates can indicate a difference in species There are actually two separate species of grey treefrogs, Hyla versicolor and Hyla chrysoscelis. These two species are very similar, differing in only two ways. The only noticeable difference is in their mating calls. H. versicolor has a slower trill than H. chrysoscelis. The other difference is in

the number of chromosomes. H. chrysoscelis is diploid and H. versicolor is tetraploid. Other methods to classify: Embryology - likenesses (show evolutionary relationships) Chromosomes Count Shape

Biochemistry compare: DNA, proteins, amino acids, RNA Chemistry - E. coli cant use citric acid Enterobacteria can Geographical Distribution The

location of a species can determine their relationship with other species. The herring gullin Britain are white. They breed with the herring gulls of eastern America, which are also white. American herring gulls breed with those of Alaska, and Alaskan ones breed with those of Siberia. But as you go to Alaska and Siberia, you find that herring gulls are getting smaller, and picking up some black markings. And when you get all the way back to Britain, they have become Lesser BlackBacked Gulls. In Britain, the two ends of the circle are two different species of bird. The two ends do not interbreed: they think that they are two different species. Evolutionary Relationships

Organisms are grouped based on evolutionary descent. (phylogeny) Phylogentic Tree Which two are most closely related? Cra b Limpet

Barnacl Barnacl Evolutionary Relationships Segmentation Molt - external skeleton Tiny free-swimming larvae - Arthropods Tiny free-swimming larvae

- a Mollusk Evolutionary relationships help us to see connections between organisms by looking at evolutionary descent instead of simple physical similarities. America n Vulture Stork

African/ Asian Vulture DNA evidence shows that the American vulture is more closely related to the stork genetically. Classification based on genes Cladistics Using

derived characteristics (evolved traits) to classify organisms Cladogram - ladder like diagram - each fork represents a point of evolution eel newt snake lizard How to make a cladogram Organism Light

Bones 3-toed wishbones Down Feathers Feathers with shaft, veins, and barbs

Flight feathers: arms as long as legs Theropods Absent Absent Absent

Absent Absent Allosaurus Present Absent Absent Absent Absent

Sinornis Present Present Absent Absent Absent Velociraptor

Present Present Present Absent Absent Archaeopteryx Present Present Present

Present Absent Robin Present Present Present Present

Present Robin F F r yx e t p aeo

Arch apt r i c Velo nis r or o Sin

rus u a s Allo ds o p o Ther F

DF 3 TW L Molecular Clocks The volcanic origin of the Hawaiian islands has produced a chain of islands of increasing geological age. The phylogenetic relationships of

island endemic birds like the honeycreeper species such as the amakihi, and the akiapolaau, reflect this volcanic 'conveyer belt. The species of the oldest islands forming the deepest branch of the tree, and the younger islands on the tips of the Big Island Kauai tree. Molecular Clocks cont. Dichotomous key start up

1 2 3 4 The Tree of Life Evolution of the classification system

When Introduced Names of the Kingdoms Plants Before 1800 Protista Late

1800s 1950s 1990s Monera Eubacteria Archeabacteria Animal Plant

Animal Protista Fungi Plant Animal Protista Fungi Plant

Animal Division of the Kingdom Monera Eubacteria Ribosomal RNA sequencing leads to a division of the Kingdom Monera With peptidoglycan

Archeabacteria Special lipids No peptidoglycan The Six Kingdom System Autotrophic

Heterotrophic Cell Walls have Peptidoglycan External Digestion Cell Walls lack Peptidoglycan Kingdom Eubacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Cell

Walls Have Auto peptidoglycan / hetertrophs The Six Kingdom System Kingdom

Archeabacteria Prokaryotic, unicelled, auto/heterotrophs Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments. Cell walls lack peptidoglycan

Kingdom Protista Unicelled and multicelled Auto / Heterotrophs Eukaryotic Cell walls of cellulose or silicon Includes Algae and Protozoa Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic

Cell walls of Chitin External Digestion Kingdom Plantae Multicellular Autotrophic Eukaryotic Cell walls of cellulose

Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotophic No Cell walls Internal Digestion The 3 Domain System - Woese

3 1 1 2 4 51 #1 Paser domesticus Animal

Kingdom Multicelled Eukaryote Hetertroph Internal Digestion #2 - Rhizopus Kingdom

Fungi Multicelled Eukaryote Heterotroph External digestion #3 - Cephalopod Animal Kingdom

Multicelled hetertroph #4 - Radiolaria 1.Kingdom Protista - unicelled - eukaryote #5 Dracanea marginata Plant Kingdom Eukaryote Multicelled Autotroph

#6 - Romalea Animal Kingdom Multicelled Eukaryote Hetertroph Internal digestion

#7 Strongylcentrotus sp. Kingdom Animalia Multicelled Hetertroph #8 - Chalmydomas Kingdom Protista Unicelled Eukaryote Autotroph #9 Ameoba Kingdom

Protista Unicelled Eukaryote #10 Rana pipens Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic Multicelled heterotroph leopard frog

#11- Squalus Animal Kingdom Multicelled Hetertroph Eukaryote Internal digestion #12 - Bacteria

Monera Eubacteria Unicelled prokaryote #13 Asteroidea Sea Star Kingdom Animalia Multicelled Eukaryote hetertroph

#14- Taenia Animal Kingdom Multicelled Eukaryote Hetertroph Internal digestion # 15 - Aurelia

Kingdom Animalia Multicelled Eukaryote Heterroph Internal digestion

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