Technology and Global Development

Technology and Global Development

Engineering for Sustainable Development Sustainable development, socio-technical systems and transitions Dr. Ir. Eefje Cuppen 12-11-2014 1 Contents 2/24/20

Sustainable development & design of sustainable technology Socio-technical systems Transitions 2 Sustainable development Sustainable development is: Development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Triple P: People, Planet, Profit 3 An example: biofuel

Arguments in favour: CO2 reduction Decrease dependency on oil countries Middle East Local & decentralized systems efficiency & social effects E.g. CO2 reduction as the main goal: food vs fuel debate 4 Converting food into fuel is a monstruous act, (Fidel Castro, 7 May 2007) EU directive 2003: 5,75% transportfuel from biomass in 2010, (2009:)10% in 2020, Minister Cramer 2008: 5,754% The right to live is more important than a full tank. (Jean Ziegler, rapporteur on right to food, UN)

5 An example: biofuel So what is more important, reducing CO2 emissions or creating a world that is more fair? Others say CO2 reductions are less than suggested: better to explore other forms of energy Cf Mulder et al (2011): different articulations of sustainability 6 There is no technological fix

Effects of technology do not depend on inherent characteristics of that technology but on (Mulder et al 2011): Perception and use of a technology in a social context How technology affects or even transforms this context How it interacts with technological systems and its physical context The time frame of analysis The quantity of use So there is no technological fix 2/24/20 7 How to design for sustainability?

2/24/20 Not all conditions can be fulfilled in one design: dilemmas and compromises (e.g. biofuel example) A systems perspective: not only technology, but also culture, actors, rules and regulation 8 Socio-technical system Fulfilment of societal functions or needs is central (e.g. mobility, energy, drinking water) Your assignment: 2/24/20

Technologies Actors Culture and behaviour Rules and regulation

Relations between these 9 Actors 2/24/20 10 Culture & behaviour Culture: "learned and shared human patterns or models for living; day- today living patterns. these patterns and models pervade all aspects

of human social interaction. " Damen, L. (1987). Culture Learning: The Fifth Dimension on the Language Classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. (p. 367). It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways. Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. (1989). Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 2/24/20 11

Rules 2/24/20 12 Transition: from one socio-technical system state to another A transition can be defined as a gradual, continuous process of change where the structural character of a society (or a complex sub-system of society) transforms. Transitions are not uniform, and nor is the transition process deterministic: there are large differences in the scale of change and the period over which it occurs. Transitions involve a range of possible development

paths, whose direction, scale and speed government policy can influence, but never entirely control. Rotmans et al, 2001, Foresight 3(1): 15-31 (p16) 2/24/20 13 Transitions occur at different levels Worldwide transitions:

From hunter-gatherer society to urban society From rural to industrial society From industrial to sustainable society? Transitions in socio-technical systems, e.g.: From sailing ships to steamships From horse-and-carriage to automobiles From propeller-piston engine aircraft to turbojets (See Geels, 2002, 2005) 2/24/20

14 Transitions in fulfillment of societal functions Transition of socio-technical systems (also called system innovation) 2/24/20 15 Multi-level perspective (Geels, 2002) Your assignment:

Trends, context Technologies Actors Electricity production Culture and behaviour system

Rules and regulation Relations between these Public opinion, Climate change, EU regulation, geopolitical relations PV, wind, biomass 2/24/20

16 Initiatives, projects

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