TEL2813/IS2820 Security Management

TEL2813/IS2820 Security Management

Information Security Project Management Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Understand basic project management Apply project management principles to an information security program Evaluate available project

management tools Introduction Information security is a process, not a project However, each element of an information security program must be managed as a project, even if it is an ongoing one Information security is a continuous series, or

chain, of projects Some aspects of information security are not project based; rather, they are managed processes (operations) Employers are seeking individuals that couple their information security focus and skills with strong project management skills The Information Security Program Chain Project Management Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge defines project management as:

Application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements Project management is accomplished through use of processes such as: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing Project management involves temporary assemblage resources to complete a project Some projects are iterative, and occur regularly Project Management

Benefits for organizations that make project management skills a priority include: Implementation of a methodology Improved planning Less ambiguity about roles Simplify project monitoring Early identification of deviations in quality, time, or budget Generally, project is deemed a success when:

Completed on time or early as compared to the baseline project plan Comes in at or below planned expenditures for baseline budget Meets all specifications as outlined in approved project definition Deliverables are accepted by end user and/or assigning entity Applying Project Management to Security

In order to apply project management to information security, you must first identify an established project management methodology While other project management approaches exist, the PMBoK is considered industry best practice Table 12-1 PMBoK Knowledge Areas Table 12-1 (2) PMBoK Knowledge Areas Project Integration Management

Project integration management includes the processes required to ensure that effective coordination occurs within and between projects many components, including personnel Major elements of project management effort that require integration include: Development of initial project plan Monitoring of progress as the project plan is

executed Control of revisions to project plan Control of changes made to resource allocations as measured performance causes adjustments to project plan Project Plan Development Project plan development Process of integrating all project elements into cohesive plan with goal of completing project within allotted work time using no more than allotted project resources

Work time, resources, and project deliverables are core components used in creation of project plan Changing any one element usually affects accuracy and reliability of estimates of other two and likely means that project plan must be revised Project Plan Inputs Project Plan Development When integrating disparate elements of a complex information security project, complications are likely to arise:

Conflicts among communities of interest Far-reaching impact New technology Project Scope Management Project scope management ensures that

project plan includes only those activities necessary to complete it Scope is the quantity or quality of project deliverables expanding from original plan Includes: Initiation Scope planning Scope definition Scope verification Scope change control Project Time Management

Project time management ensures that project is finished by identified completion date while meeting objectives Failure to meet project deadlines is among most frequently cited failures in project management Many missed deadlines are rooted in poor planning Includes following processes:

Activity definition Activity sequencing Activity duration estimating Schedule development Schedule control Project Cost Management Project cost management ensures that a project is completed within resource constraints Some projects are planned using only a financial budget from which all resources must be procured

Includes following processes: Resource planning Cost estimating Cost budgeting Cost control Project Quality Management

Project quality management ensures that project adequately meets project specifications If project deliverables meet requirements specified in project plan, project has met its quality objective Good plan defines project deliverables in unambiguous terms against which actual results are easily compared Includes: Quality planning Quality assurance Quality control

Project Human Resource Management Project human resource management ensures personnel assigned to project are effectively employed Staffing project requires careful estimates of required effort In information security projects, human resource management has unique complexities, including:

Extended clearances Deploying technology new to organization Includes: Organizational planning Staff acquisition Team development Project Communications Management

Project communications conveys details of activities associated with project to all involved Includes creation, distribution, classification, storage, and ultimately destruction of documents, messages, and other associated project information Includes: Communications planning Information distribution Performance reporting

Administrative closure Project Risk Management Project risk management assesses, mitigates, manages, and reduces impact of adverse occurrences on the project Information security projects do face risks that may be different from other types of projects Includes:

Risk Risk Risk Risk identification quantification response development response control Project Procurement Management

Project procurement acquires needed resources to complete the project Depending on common practices of organization, project managers may simply requisition resources from organization, or they may have to purchase Includes: Procurement planning Solicitation planning Solicitation Source selection

Contract administration Contract closeout Additional Project Planning Considerations Financial Priority Regardless of information security needs,

effort expended depends on available funds In general, most important information security controls in project plan should be scheduled first Time and Scheduling Staffing Lack of qualified, trained, and available personnel also constrains project plan Additional Project Planning Considerations (Continued) Scope

Procurement Interrelated conflicts between installation of information security controls and daily operations of organization Number of constraints on selection process of equipment and services in most organizations, specifically in selection of certain service vendors or products from manufacturers and suppliers Organizational Feasibility

Ability of organization to adapt to change Additional Project Planning Considerations (Continued) Training and Indoctrination Size of organization and normal conduct of business may preclude a single large training program covering new security procedures or technologies Technology Governance and Change

Control Technology governance is complex process that organizations use to manage affects and costs of technology implementation, innovation, and obsolescence Additional Project Planning Considerations (Continued) By managing process of change, organization can:

Improve communication about change across the organization Enhance coordination among groups within the organization as change is scheduled and completed Reduce unintended consequences by having a process to resolve potential conflicts and disruptions that uncoordinated change can introduce Improve quality of service as potential failures are eliminated and groups work together Assure management that all groups are complying with the organizations policies regarding technology governance, procurement, accounting, and information security

Controlling the Project Once a project plan has been defined and all of the preparatory actions are complete, project gets underway Supervising Implementation Optimal approach is usually to designate a suitable person from the information security community of interest focus is on information security needs of the organization Executing the Plan

Once a project is underway, managed using negative feedback loop or cybernetic loop Ensures that progress is measured periodically Corrective action is required in two basic situations Estimate is flawed

Plan should be corrected Downstream tasks updated to reflect change Performance has lagged Add resources Lengthen schedule Reduce quality/quantity of deliverable Negative Feedback Loop Executing the Plan Often a project manager can adjust

one of the three following planning parameters for the task being corrected: Effort and money allocated Elapsed time or scheduling impact Quality or quantity of the deliverable Wrap-Up Project wrap-up is usually a procedural task

assigned to a mid-level IT or information security manager These managers collect documentation, finalize status reports, and deliver a final report and presentation at wrap-up meeting Goal of wrap-up: resolve any pending issues, critique overall effort, and draw conclusions about how to improve process in future projects Conversion Strategies Direct changeover, also known as going cold turkey

Phased implementation: most common approach Rolling out a piece of the system across entire organization Pilot implementation Stopping old method and beginning new Implementing all security improvements in a single office, department, or division

Resolving issues within that group before expanding to the rest of the organization Parallel operation Running new methods alongside old methods To Outsource or Not Just as some organizations outsource part of or all of IT operations, so too can organizations outsource part of or all of their information security programs, especially developmental projects Expense and time it takes to develop effective information security project management skills

may be beyond the reachas well as needsof some organizations In best interest to hire competent professional services Because of complex nature of outsourcing, organizations should hire best available specialists Obtain capable legal counsel to negotiate and verify legal and technical intricacies of contract Dealing with Change

Prospect of change can cause employees to be unconsciously or consciously resistant By understanding and applying change management, you can lower resistance to change and even build resilience for change One of oldest models of change management is the Lewin change model, which consists of: Unfreezing: thawing of hard and fast habits and established procedures Moving: transition between old and new ways Refreezing: integration of new methods into

organizational culture Unfreezing Phases Disconfirmation Induction of survival guilt or survival anxiety Creation of psychological safety or overcoming learning anxiety Moving Phases

Cognitive redefinition Imitation and positive or defensive identification with a role model Scanning (also called insight, or trialand-error learning) Refreezing Personal refreezing occurs when each individual employee comes to an understanding that new way of doing things is best way Relational refreezing occurs when a group comes to a similar decision Considerations for

Organizational Change Steps can be taken to make an organization more amenable to change Reducing resistance to change from the start: Communication: first and most crucial step Updates should also educate employees on exactly how proposed changes will affect them, both individually and across the organization Involvement means getting key representatives

from user groups to serve as members of the process Developing a Culture that Supports Change An ideal organization fosters resilience to change Organization accepts that change is a necessary part of the culture

Embracing change is more productive than fighting it To develop such a culture, organization must successfully accomplish many projects that require change Resilient culture can be either cultivated or undermined by managements approach Project Management Tools Most project managers combine software tools that implement one or more of dominant modeling approaches

Most successful project managers gain sufficient skill and experience to earn a certificate in project management Project Management Institute (PMI) is project managements leading global professional association, Sponsors two certificate programs: The Project Management Professional (PMP) Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) Project Management Tools (Continued)

Most project managers engaged in nontrivial project plans use tools to facilitate scheduling and execution of project Using complex project management tools often results in a complication called projectitis: Occurs when project manager spends more time documenting project tasks, collecting performance measurements, recording project task information, and updating project completion forecasts than accomplishing meaningful project work Development of an overly elegant, microscopically detailed plan before gaining

consensus for the work and related coordinated activities may be a precursor to projectitis Work Breakdown Structure Project plan can be created using a very simple planning tool, such as the work breakdown structure (WBS) Project plan is first broken down into a few major tasks Each of these major tasks is placed on the WBS task list Work Breakdown Structure

(Continued) Minimum attributes that should be determined for each task are: Work to be accomplished (activities and deliverables) Estimated amount of effort required for completion in hours or workdays Common or specialty skills needed to perform task

Task interdependencies Work Breakdown Structure (Continued) As project plan develops, additional attributes can be added, including:

Estimated capital expenses for the task Estimated non capital expenses for the task Task assignment according to specific skills Start and end dates Work To Be Accomplished Amount of Effort Skill Sets/Human Resources Task Dependencies Estimated Capital Expenses Estimated Non capital Expenses Start and End Dates Work Phase Once project manager has completed WBS by breaking tasks into subtasks, estimating effort, and

forecasting necessary resources, work phaseduring which the project deliverables are prepared may begin Example (1) Early Draft WBS Example (2) Later WBS Part Example (3) Later WBS Part Example (3) Later WBS Part Task-Sequencing Approaches

Once a project reaches even a relatively modest size, say a few dozen tasks, there can be almost innumerable possibilities for task assignment and scheduling A number of approaches are available to assist the project manager in this sequencing effort Network Scheduling One method for sequencing tasks

and subtasks in a project plan is known as network scheduling Network refers to the web of possible pathways to project completion from beginning task to ending task Simple Network Dependency Complex Network Dependency PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Most popular of networking dependency diagramming techniques Originally developed in late 1950s to meet needs of rapidly expanding government-driven engineering projects About the same time, Critical Path Method was also being developed Possible to take a very complex operation and diagram it in PERT if you can answer three key questions about each activity:

How long will this activity take? What activity occurs immediately before this activity can take place? What activity occurs immediately after this activity? PERT (Continued) As each possible path through project is analyzed, difference in time between critical path and any other path is slack time: Indication of how much time is available for

starting a non critical task without delaying the project as a whole Should a delay be introduced, whether due to poor estimation of time, unexpected events, or need to reassign resources to other paths such as critical path, tasks with slack time are logical candidates for delay PERT Advantages Several advantages to PERT method:

Makes planning large projects easier by facilitating identification of pre- and post- activities Allows planning to determine probability of meeting requirements Anticipates impact of changes on system Presents information in a straightforward format that both technical and non-technical managers can understand and refer to in planning discussions Requires no formal training PERT Advantages Several advantages to PERT method:

Makes planning large projects easier by facilitating identification of pre- and post- activities Allows planning to determine probability of meeting requirements Anticipates impact of changes on system Presents information in a straightforward format that both technical and non-technical managers can understand and refer to in planning discussions Requires no formal training

PERT Disadvantages Disadvantages of PERT method include: Diagrams can become awkward and cumbersome, especially in very large projects Diagrams can become expensive to develop and maintain, due to the complexities of some project development processes Can be difficult to place an accurate time to complete on some tasks, especially in the initial construction of a project

Inaccurate estimates invalidate any close critical path calculations Program Evaluation and Review Technique Gantt Chart Another popular project management tool is bar or Gantt chart, named for Henry Gantt, who developed this method in early 1900s Like network diagrams, Gantt charts are easy to read and understand easy to present to management

Even easier to design and implement than PERT diagrams Yield much of the same information Lists activities on vertical axis of a bar chart and provides a simple time line on the horizontal axis MS Project Gantt Chart Automated Project Tools Microsoft Project: widely used project management tool

If considering automated project management tool, keep following in mind: Software program cannot take the place of a skilled and experienced project manager who understands how to define tasks, allocate scarce resources, and manage the resources that are assigned Software tool can get in the way of the work Choose a tool that you can use effectively

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