# Temperature, heat, internal energy and change of state

Temperature, heat, internal energy and change of state Objectives To understand the difference between heat energy and temperature To appreciate that the internal energy of an object is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the particles To be able to explain what happens when a solid is heated up to its boiling point To be able to explain how the melting point of a material depends on the forces between the particles Whats the temperature? The coldest place on Earth is Antartica, where temperatures as cold as -89C

have been recorded. At the other extreme, the hottest place on Earth is the El Alzizia desert in Libya where temperatures have soared to 58C. But what exactly do we mean by hot and cold? Can you trust your senses? Try holding one hand in hot water and the other in cold water. Then put them both into warm water. Youll probably find something strange. The cold hand senses the water as warmer, while the hot hand, feels it colder. We cant always trust our senses, which is why we use thermometers.

The Celcius temperature scale We measure temperature to tell us exactly how hot or cold something is. To do this we use a thermometer, which has a scale on it. The celcius temperature scale is based on two fixed points, the melting point of ice (water) and the boiling point of water at normal atmospheric pressure. The melting point of water is called 0, and the boiling point is called 100. There are 100 divisions or degrees between these two points. The right thermometer for the job There are different thermometers for different jobs. For example, your body

temperature is 37C but the temperature in a freezer might be -20C. You need different thermometers to measure a range of temperatures, from the hottest to the coldest on its scale In science we need to choose the correct thermometer for the experiment we are doing. The resolution of the thermometers we use regularly is 1C. but there are thermometers that read only up to 50C but will have a better resolution A temperature sensor and datalogger can be very useful if many readings need to be taken and the results can be displayed on a computer in graph form straight away. The temperature of a object is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the object. To raise the temperature of an object we have to supply heat energy to it.

How much energy is in this beaker of water? We need to add up the energies of all the particles in the water. The particles have random kinetic energy as they are moving about all over the place The particles also have potential energy because of the forces between the particles If we add up all the energies for all the particles, we have the internal energy of the liquid. How are temperature and heat energy different? The liquids in these 2 beakers are at the same temperature, so the particles have the same average speed. B

A 50C 1 litre 2 litres 2 Beakers of water at 50C are at the same temperature but if one is twice as big as the other, it will contain twice as much heat energy as the other. Which object

Bath full of warm water Lit sparkler Cup of freshly made tea Has the most heat energy? Has the highest temperature? Which has the most internal energy, the iceberg or the firework? Changing internal energy Changing state is a physical change- the number of particles does not change http://www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/client_ftp/ks3/scienc

e/changing_matter/index.htm F D B A C E From A to B: The ice is below 0C- heating increases the average kinetic energy of the

particles and the temperature rises show how ice For theGraph ice toto change into the water Istemperature it the a solid, strong of forces changes as gently

This partthe of particles the graphtogether is ita is flat line.orheated It shows that holding liquid have togas? be broken. even

it stays 100 though the ice is still beingAheated, gas as 90ice for 3 minutes. Temperature (C) 80 Why does the ice not change Heatinto a liquid straight away? 70 60 This 50 40

Is it a solid, requires liquid a lot ofor energy. A gas? liquid 30 20 100 -10 2 -20

3 1 2 3 15 16 4 5 6 7 4 8

5 9 10 11 12 13 14 solid The heatAbeing to (minutes) the ice during these three Is supplied it a solid, Time minutes is getting up breaking the bonds between liquidused or gas? 6

Between B and C: This is the melting point The temperature is not rising and so the average kinetic energy of the particles is not changing. The energy supplied is used to increase the potential energy of the system. The attractive forces between the particles are weakened and so the particles can now slide over each other. Between C and D: The substance is now a liquid. The temperature is rising which means that the energy supplied is increasing the average kinetic energy of the particles. As the temperature of the liquid rises more particles will have enough

energy to leave the surface.-this is evaporation Between D and E: The liquid is boiling The temperature is not rising. The average kinetic energy of the particles is not increasing. All the energy supplied is being used to increase the potential energy of the system. The energy is being used to break the bonds between the particles Between E and F: the substance is now a gas The temperature of the gas is rising, so the average kinetic energy of the particles in the gas is increasing. If we need energy to change a solid into a liquid, what do you think happens when a liquid turns back into a solid?

Molecular Formula Boiling Point (oC) State at 25oC Name methane Melting Point (oC)

CH4 -183 -164 gas ethane C2H6 -183 -89 propane

C3H8 -190 -42 butane C4H10 -138 -0.5 pentane

C5H12 -130 36 hexane C6H14 -95 69 heptane C7H16

-91 98 octane C8H18 -57 125 nonane C9H20

-51 151 decane C10H22 -30 174 undecane C11H24 -25

196 dodecane C12H26 -10 216 eicosane C20H42 37

343 triacontane C30H62 66 450 liquid solid

## Recently Viewed Presentations

• Foundation brakes are . ... 1998 are required to have a lamp on the left side. 5-4. On newer vehicles, the malfunction lamp comes on at start-up for a bulb check, and then goes out quickly. ... it may be...
• Professional Engineering Ethics Lecture Notes * * * * * * * * Rev. King was in jail for violating Alabama's segregation laws. He was writing to other ministers who had criticized him for breaking the law.
• Systems Software Unit 2 What is Software? Intangible A file Performs tasks / jobs A set of instruction Run/executed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) Must be in the computer's memory to run Two Types of Software Systems Software Applications...
• with styrene, iron, stainlessteel, acrylic, always with specifications provided by our customers. Floor Lamps. Made . with iron or wood with our customer's specifications. PRODUCTS & SERVICES. Since we started we have been manufacturing with our customers specifications the following...
• Class. Definition: description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, relationships, and semantics. Objects are also called
• Well, since 1 passes through the surface of each loop, the answer is 2 tot or 4 1. We say that the two loops of current are linked by the total flux tot. Using Magnetic Flux and Inductance We define...
• Acceleration analysis (Chapter 4) ... crank-slider mechanism General approach for kinematic analysis Position analysis Velocity analysis Velocity analysis Acceleration analysis Relation between accelerations of B2 (on crank) and B3 (on slider) Rolling acceleration (4.7) Find accelerations of C ...
• NS 1300 Fall 2007 Dr. Brad Hoge Chapter 25: Evolution Historical Perspective Plato Plato's Ideal Aristotle Scala naturae Future Causes The Chain of Being The Long Road to Recovery Linnaeus taxonomy Hutton gradualism Lamarck evolution Malthus populations Cuvier extinction Lyell...