The ADP-ATP Cycle

The ADP-ATP Cycle

The ADP-ATP Cycle ATPase ATP Syntheta se When is ATP Made in the Body?

During a Process called Cellular Respiration that takes place in both Plants & Animals Cellular Respiration Includes pathways that require

oxygen Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced Glucose breakdown is therefore an oxidation-reduction reaction Breakdown of one glucose results in 36 to 38 ATP molecules Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 YIELDS 6CO2 + 6H20 + e- + 36- What Type of Process is Cellular Respiration? An Oxidation-Reduction Process or REDOX Reaction

Oxidation of GLUCOSE --> CO2 + H2O (e- removed from C6H12O6) Reduction O2 to H2O (e- passed to O2) What Carries the Electrons? NAD+ (nicotinadenine dinucleotide) acts as the energy carrier

NAD+ is a coenzyme Its Reduced to NADH when it picks up two electrons and one hydrogen ion Are There Any Other Electron Carriers? YES! Another Coenzyme!

FAD+ (Flavin adenine dinucleotide) Reduced to FADH2 Other Cellular Respiration Facts Metabolic Pathway that breaks down carbohydrates

Process is Exergonic as High-energy Glucose is broken into CO2 and H2O Process is also Catabolic because larger Glucose breaks into smaller molecules What are the Stages of Cellular Respiration? Glycolysis The Krebs Cycle

The Electron Transport Chain Where Does Cellular Respiration Take Place? It actually takes place in two parts of the cell: Glycolysis

occurs in the Cytoplasm Krebs Cycle & ETC Take place in the Review of Mitochondria Structure Smooth outer Membrane

Folded inner membrane Folds called Cristae Space inside cristae called the Matrix Diagram of the Process Occurs across

Cristae Occurs in Cytoplas m Occurs in

Matrix Glycolysis Summary Takes place in the Cytoplasm Anaerobic (Doesnt Use Oxygen) Requires input of 2 ATP Glucose split into two

molecules of Pyruvate or Pyruvic Acid Glycolysis Summary Also produces 2 NADH and 4 ATP Pyruvate is oxidized to Acetyl CoA and CO2 is removed Glycolysis

Diagram Fermentation Occurs when O2 NOT present (anaerobic) Called Lactic Acid fermentation in muscle cells (makes muscles tired) Called Alcoholic fermentation

in yeast (produces ethanol) Nets only 2 ATP A Little Krebs Cycle History Discovered by Hans Krebs in 1937 He received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1953 for

his discovery Forced to leave Germany prior to WWII because he was Jewish Krebs Cycle Summary Requires Oxygen (Aerobic) Cyclical series of oxidation reactions that

give off CO2 and produce one ATP per cycle Turns twice per glucose molecule Produces two ATP Takes place in matrix of mitochondria Krebs Cycle Summary Each turn of the Krebs Cycle also produces 3NADH, 1FADH2, and 2CO2 Therefore, For each Glucose molecule,

the Krebs Cycle produces 6NADH, 2FADH2, 4CO2, and 2ATP Krebs Cycle ATP NETS: 3NADH, 1ATP, 1FADH2, & 2CO2 Electron Transport Chain Summary

34 ATP Produced H2O Produced Occurs Across Inner Mitochondrial membrane Uses coenzymes NAD+ and FAD+ to accept e- from glucose NADH = 3 ATPs FADH2 = 2 ATPs

electron transport chain (14 min) intro to cellular respiration (15 min)

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