The Ancient Near East The Larger Picture The Sumerians Invented: Writing Farming Technology Architecture Codes of Law
Cities and Regional Governments Formal System of Education Writing Cuneiform etched on clay tablets baked for permanence Originally invented to keep business and temple records
Eventually grew to include writings of philosophy, literature, mathematics, architecture, law, politics, and religion The oldest surviving documents in the world Farming Technology Irrigation Systems
Complex system of canals, dikes, weirs and reservoirs to turn desert into farmland Regional authorities set up to build and regulate irrigation systems Led to development of cities and city-states Wheel Plow Architecture
Originally built with bundled reeds, and later, sun-baked brick Developed measuring and surveying instruments Eventually erected temples [ziggurats] as high as 75 feet above the ground Codes of Law Code of Ir-Nammu
Overall, more humane Allowed a cash payment for some offenses, rather than an eye for an eye Code of Hammurabi Characterized by vengeance, as well as the visiting of the parents sins on the children Cities and Regional Governments
Three classes of people under the king: Aristocratic nobles (administrators, priests and military officers) Middle class people (businessmen, teachers, farmers, herdsmen, fishermen, artisans [especially potters and metal workers], carpenters, weavers, and masons)
Slaves (captives or sold by families) Formal System of Education Began as a way of training scribes and administrators to keep business and other temple records Later, moved from strictly vocational schools to become centers of culture
Students were taught writing, drawing, Sumerian, and mathematics Culture remained more concerned overall with accounts than academic learning Religion
AnuGod of the Heavens Ea (also called Enki)God of earth and water EnlilGod of order; in charge of mens destiny or fate Ishtar (also called Inanni) Goddess of love and war AruruGoddess of creation and birth ShamashSun God; patron of Uruk The Epic of Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh found in official lists of kings Reigned in Uruk around 2800 BC After his death, worshipped as a God Epic composed around 1200 BC Traditionally, author was Sin-leqe-unninni, a Babylonian scribe Incorporates earlier materials, some dating back to 2100 BC, nearly a millenium before
Net Present Value Last Time We spent the time developing our basic approach to DCF analysis. We discussed: The importance of a financial market to the economy and why investors receive interest (compensation) for saving/lending.
Life Cycle of Plants. Most plants go through a similar life cycle. Follow the life cycle of a lima bean plant. Seed-a seed contains a tiny undeveloped plant and a supply of food for the plant. 2. Seedling - a...
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Summer camp will provide fun and cool activities such as sing along, jump along, write along, paint along, paper-cut along, DIY along and practice along to allow participants to experience Chinese culture.
Despite their importance, tools are a little valued part of social history. In France they are considered to be an integral part of the 'Art Populaire' , but in the UK the equivalent, Folk Art, concentrates more on artefacts and...
Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber One of the most striking of all ibises, the scarlet ibis is distinguished by its brilliant red, pink and orange color. Even the scarlet ibis's legs and feet are red. While adults have a distinctive red...
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