The Ankle and Foot Joints

The Ankle and Foot Joints

The Ankle and Foot Joints Function of the foot Provide a stable platform Generate propulsion Absorb shock Bones

Ankle + foot = 28 bones foot = 26 bones Leg: tibia, fibula Foot: Tarsals (7): talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, and cuneiforms (3) Metatarsals (5) Phalanges (14) Joints Tibiofibular: articulation between tibia and fibula

amphiarthrodial joint Ankle joint Talocrural articulation between talus and tibia; talus and fibula classified as a ginglymus Joints Subtalar joint articulation between talus and calcaneus classified as arthrodial (gliding) joint

Transverse tarsal joint articulation between talus, navicular, calcaneus and cuboid bones classified as arthrodial joint Joints Tarsometatarsal tarsal bones and metatarsal classified as arthrodial (gliding) joints Metatarsophalangeal metatarsals and phalanges

classified as condyloid Interphalangeal joints (proximal and distal) phalangeal bones ginglymus Arches of the foot Medial longitudinal arch calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiforms (3), and medial metatarsals (3). Lateral longitudinal arch

calcanueus, cuboid, lateral metatarsals (4 & 5) Transverse arch across metatarsals Classifying Arch Type Pes Planus: Flat foot Pes Cavus: High Arch Normal Movements Ankle joint

dorsiflexion: raising the toes plantarflexion: point the toes Subtalar & Transverse tarsal joints Calcaneal inversion and eversion Interphalangeal joints flexion extension Movements Supination

inversion plantar flexion adduction Pronation eversion dorsiflexion abduction Summary Bones of the foot: tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

Joints of the foot and ankle talocrural (ankle) subtalar transverse tarsal metatarsalphalangeal

interphalangeal Movements dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (ankle joint) inversion/eversion (subtalar & transverse tarsal) flexion and extension of toes about the interphalangeal joints Muscles

Plantar flexors Dorsi flexors Evertors Invertors Plantar Flexors

Gastrocnemius Flexor digitorum longus Peroneus longus Plantaris Soleus Tibialis Posterior Dorsiflexors Tibialis anterior Peroneus tertius

Extensor digitorum longus Invertors Tibialis anterior Tibialis posterior Flexor hallucis longus Evertors

Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis Peroneus tertius Extensor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum longus (p44) Origin lateral condyle of tibia upper 3/4 of anterior aspect of fibula Insertion

superior aspect of foot, middle and distal phalanges of four lesser toes Action Extension of four lesser toes dorsal flexion eversion Extensor hallucis longus (p45) Origin fibula, middle aspect of anterior fibula

Insertion superior aspect of foot, base of distal phalanx of great toe Action dorsiflexion extension of great toe Peroneus tertius (p46) Origin fibula, anterior-lateral surface of lower 1/3 of fibula

Insertion superior aspect of foot, base of fifth metatarsal Action Eversion Dorsal flexion Tibialis anterior (p47) Origin Lateral condyle of tibia Upper two-thirds of anterior-lateral aspect of tibia

Insertion plantar surface of 1st (medial) cuneiform and 1st metatarsal Action Dorsal flexion inversion Peroneus brevis (p48) Origin fibula, lower two-thirds, lateral aspect

Insertion 5th metatarsal tuberosity Action eversion Peroneus longus (p49) Origin lateral surface of tibia fibula, upper two-thirds of lateral aspect of fibula

Insertion inferior aspect of foot, 1st cuneiform and 1st metatarsal bones Action Eversion Plantar flexion Flexor digitorum longus (p50) Origin tibia, middle third, posterior aspect

Insertion plantar surface of foot, distal phalanx of each of the four lesser toes (no big toe) Action toe flexion plantar flexion Flexor hallucis longus (p51) Origin fibula, lower two-thirds, posterior aspect

Insertion plantar aspect of foot, base of distal phalanx of big toe (hallucis) Action big toe flexion inversion Gastrocnemius (p52) Origin medial and lateral epicondyle of the femur

Insertion posterior surface of calcaneus Action plantar flexion knee flexion Soleus (p54) Origin

upper 1/3 posterior shaft of fibula posterior surface of head of fibula popliteal line middle 1/3 of medial border of tibia Insertion Posterior surface of the calcaneus Action Plantar flexion

Note Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles have a common tendon/insertion (calcaneal tendon or Achilles tendon) Some texts refer to the combination of the gastrocnemius and soleus as the triceps surae (three headed muscle). Plantaris (p53) Origin posterior surface of lateral epicondyle of femur

Insertion posterior surface of calcaneus Action plantar flexion Tibialis Posterior (p55) Origin middle 1/3 of posterior-lateral surface of tibia middle 1/3 of posterior-medial surface of fibula

Insertion plantar surface of foot, lower inner surfaces of navicular, cuneiforms, and 2nd & 3rd metatarsals Action plantar flexion inversion Summary of muscles Plantar flexors gast., sol., flx digitorum long., per longus, tib post, plantaris

Dorsi flexors tib ant, per tertius, ext dig long Evertors per longus, brevis, tertius, ext dig longus Invertors tib ant & post, flx hallucis long

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