amphiarthrodial joint Ankle joint Talocrural articulation between talus and tibia; talus and fibula classified as a ginglymus Joints Subtalar joint articulation between talus and calcaneus classified as arthrodial (gliding) joint
Transverse tarsal joint articulation between talus, navicular, calcaneus and cuboid bones classified as arthrodial joint Joints Tarsometatarsal tarsal bones and metatarsal classified as arthrodial (gliding) joints Metatarsophalangeal metatarsals and phalanges
classified as condyloid Interphalangeal joints (proximal and distal) phalangeal bones ginglymus Arches of the foot Medial longitudinal arch calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiforms (3), and medial metatarsals (3). Lateral longitudinal arch
calcanueus, cuboid, lateral metatarsals (4 & 5) Transverse arch across metatarsals Classifying Arch Type Pes Planus: Flat foot Pes Cavus: High Arch Normal Movements Ankle joint
dorsiflexion: raising the toes plantarflexion: point the toes Subtalar & Transverse tarsal joints Calcaneal inversion and eversion Interphalangeal joints flexion extension Movements Supination
inversion plantar flexion adduction Pronation eversion dorsiflexion abduction Summary Bones of the foot: tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
Joints of the foot and ankle talocrural (ankle) subtalar transverse tarsal metatarsalphalangeal
interphalangeal Movements dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (ankle joint) inversion/eversion (subtalar & transverse tarsal) flexion and extension of toes about the interphalangeal joints Muscles
Peroneus longus Peroneus brevis Peroneus tertius Extensor digitorum longus Extensor digitorum longus (p44) Origin lateral condyle of tibia upper 3/4 of anterior aspect of fibula Insertion
superior aspect of foot, middle and distal phalanges of four lesser toes Action Extension of four lesser toes dorsal flexion eversion Extensor hallucis longus (p45) Origin fibula, middle aspect of anterior fibula
Insertion superior aspect of foot, base of distal phalanx of great toe Action dorsiflexion extension of great toe Peroneus tertius (p46) Origin fibula, anterior-lateral surface of lower 1/3 of fibula
Insertion superior aspect of foot, base of fifth metatarsal Action Eversion Dorsal flexion Tibialis anterior (p47) Origin Lateral condyle of tibia Upper two-thirds of anterior-lateral aspect of tibia
Insertion plantar surface of foot, distal phalanx of each of the four lesser toes (no big toe) Action toe flexion plantar flexion Flexor hallucis longus (p51) Origin fibula, lower two-thirds, posterior aspect
Insertion plantar aspect of foot, base of distal phalanx of big toe (hallucis) Action big toe flexion inversion Gastrocnemius (p52) Origin medial and lateral epicondyle of the femur
upper 1/3 posterior shaft of fibula posterior surface of head of fibula popliteal line middle 1/3 of medial border of tibia Insertion Posterior surface of the calcaneus Action Plantar flexion
Note Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles have a common tendon/insertion (calcaneal tendon or Achilles tendon) Some texts refer to the combination of the gastrocnemius and soleus as the triceps surae (three headed muscle). Plantaris (p53) Origin posterior surface of lateral epicondyle of femur
Insertion posterior surface of calcaneus Action plantar flexion Tibialis Posterior (p55) Origin middle 1/3 of posterior-lateral surface of tibia middle 1/3 of posterior-medial surface of fibula
Insertion plantar surface of foot, lower inner surfaces of navicular, cuneiforms, and 2nd & 3rd metatarsals Action plantar flexion inversion Summary of muscles Plantar flexors gast., sol., flx digitorum long., per longus, tib post, plantaris
Dorsi flexors tib ant, per tertius, ext dig long Evertors per longus, brevis, tertius, ext dig longus Invertors tib ant & post, flx hallucis long
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