The Canadian Immigration System: Policy and Patterns Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Outline of Presentation: The Canadian Immigration System History of Canadas Immigration Policy Forms and Periods Immigration in Canada Today: A General Picture Immigration levels Regions of origin Types of immigrants Where immigrants settle Policy Challenge: Immigrants skills and credentials are not utilized The Foreign Credentials Gap Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework 1. 2. 3.
4. MAJOR HISTORICAL TRENDS The Shift in the Economic Base From an Agricultural to a PostIndustrial Foundation Corresponds to the Demographic and Cognitive Shift From a White-Settler Colony to a Post-Racial Society. Historically, at the Collective Level, the Form of Immigration Intake has Shifted From a Closed Policy to Open Policy to Restricted Policy Characterized by Designer Immigration. Historically, at the Individual Level, the Criteria for Admission has Shifted From Absorptive Capacity To Adaptive Capacity. Historically, at the Mode of Production Level, the More Complex Developments in the Economic Infrastructure (Mode of Production) have Corresponded to the More Complex Social Differentiations in Society. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework History of Immigration Policy: The Three Forms The Forms of Immigration: From a White-Settler Colony to a Post-Racial Society & From an Agricultural to a Post-industrial Society Closed Policy" was inclined toward formalizing a practice that existed since Confederation of recruiting only designated newcomers from only designated countries. This closed policy resulted in targeted or selective immigration practices which guaranteed the bulk of newcomers were, and would remain, of preferred European stock. Open Policy" Canada abandoned its White-Settler Colony mentality, country of origin was no longer a criterion in immigration selecting, and admission requirements were to be based on individual personal
characteristics, supporting the rise of a Post-Racial Society mentality. Restrictive Policy- began in 1978 and is associated with specific yearly immigration target levels, coupled with a closer scrutiny of the immigrant's potential labor market impact, characterized by the rise of Designer immigration. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework History of Canadas Immigration Policy: The Eight Periods When I speak of quality, I have in mind something that is quite different from what is in the mind of the average writer or speaker upon the question of immigration. I think of a stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for generations, with a stout wife and half-a-dozen children, is good quality. Sir Clifford Sifton, 1922 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period One: 1867 1913
Immigration part of a general set of national policies (1868-1892 Department of Agriculture; 1892-1917 Department of Interior) Main goals . securing farmers, farm workers and female domestics . populate, farm and settle the Canadian West Search for farmers was concentrated in Britain, the U.S. and Northwestern Europe The highest levels ever: 330,000 in 1911 and 400,000 in 1913. Demand for labour high, source countries begin to include Eastern and Central Europe and give away land to White-settlers. Head tax on Chinese immigrants in West doubled, to $100 . tax increased again to $500, then immigration outlawed in 1923 . the Chinese were the only group for which there was a complete structure of special legislation and regulations limiting there opportunity to come, to be united with their families if already here, and to proceed immediately to citizenship when eligible. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework "The Last, Best West" Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Chinese Head Tax Certificate Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework
Period Two: 1919 1929 Industrialization and Urbanization 1919: Immigration Act revised (reflecting growth of class-based cleavage/social stratification) . government may limit the numbers of immigrants . formalized immigration guidelines based on ethnicity, race, cultural and ideological traits. . word nationality added to race to define the origin of immigrants. First official division of source countries into preferred and nonpreferred groups . preferred countries included Britain, the US, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland, Australia and New Zealand . applicants from northern and western Europe were treated similarly; those from eastern, southern and central Europe faced stricter regulations. Formal acknowledgement of short-term absorptive capacity Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period Three: 1930s and 1940s dj vu Capitalism
1931: Canadian unemployment rate over 11% . Financial [dj vu Capitalism and the ideological distain for market regulation] system crisis comparable to today. . Effectively ended six decades of active immigrant recruitment . Door closed to most newcomers except those (of European descent) from Britain and the US. Family reunification remained a priority; immediate family members admitted into the country (still in transition from and agricultural to and industrial based economy). Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period Four: 1946 1962 The Transition to an Advanced Industrial Society Two main events: large influx of displaced persons from Europe, establishment of clear ethnic and economic goals for immigration policy 1947: Prime Minister Mackenzie King stated that immigration had purpose of population growth and improved Canadian standard of living . immigration should not change the basic character of the Canadian population 1952: New Immigration Act allows refusal of admission on the grounds of nationality, ethnic group, geographical area of origin, peculiar customs, habits and modes of life, unsuitability with regard to the climate, probable inability to become readily assimilated, etc.
Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Immigration Is A Privilege And Not A Right Canadas Postwar Immigration Policy "The policy of the government is to foster the growth of the population of Canada by the encouragement of immigration. The government will seek by legislation, regulation and vigorous administration, to ensure the careful selection and permanent settlement of such numbers of immigrants as can be advantageously absorbed in our national economy. It is a matter of domestic policy [...] The people of Canada do not wish as a result of mass immigration to make a fundamental alteration in the character of our population. Large scale immigration from the Orient would change the fundamental composition of the Canadian population" William Lyon MacKenzie King. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period Five: 1962 1973 Liberal Universalism and Difference Blind-ness
1962: Canada abandoned its all White racist immigration policy . Admission to be based on individual personal characteristics; not nationality 1966 Immigration under Department of Manpower and Immigration (directly tie immigration and labour market). 1967: Point system created to facilitate and encourage the flow of skilled migrants Family class was still prioritized Additional immigration posts were opened in third world areas; resulting shift in region of immigrant origin Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period Six: 1974 1985 A period of big swings in the business cycle; immigration inflows were adjusted accordingly. 1976: New Immigration Act defines the 3 main priorities of the immigration policy: . Priority 1: family reunification . Priority 2: humanitarian concerns . Priority 3: promotion of Canadas economic, social demographic and cultural goals These goals/priorities still form the core of our immigration policy
Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period Seven: 1986 2002 1985: Report to Parliament on future immigration levels . fertility in Canada had fallen below replacement levels . economic component of the inflow should be increased but not at the expense of social and humanitarian streams 1992: Family class was reduced; government committed to stable inflows of about 1% of the current population 1993: Size of the inflow increased to 250,000 in spite of poor labour market a major shift from the absorptive capacity policy to adaptability (labour market indicators) The switch to long term goals and the desire to increase the numbers of skilled workers continued through the 1990s (the birth of designer immigration) Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Period Eight: 2002
2002: 1976 Immigration Act replaced . A few changes to the skilled workers category in order to attract younger and educated workers . More points to applicants with a trade certificate or a second degree; more points for language (French and English); fewer points for experience with greater weight on first two years of experience; and changes in age factor . Common-law partner in the family category (conjugal relations) . More powers of detention . Undocumented protected persons category eliminated Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Immigration in Canada Today: Components of Immigration Family Reunification Members of the Family Class Intake Humanitarian Convention Refugees; Members of Designated Classes; Persons eligible under special humanitarian measures
Economic Assisted Relatives* Business Immigrants: Entrepreneurs Self-employed persons Investors Retirees Other Independent Immigrants* Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Selection Grid for Economic Immigrants (Point System) Factor One: Education Maximum 25 Factor Two: Official Languages Maximum 24 1st Official Language Maximum 16 2nd Official Language Maximum 8 Factor Three: Experience Maximum 21
Factor Four: Age Maximum 10 Factor Five: Arranged Employment in Canada Maximum 10 Factor Six: Adaptability Maximum 10 Total Maximum 100 Passing Mark 67 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Selection Factor: Adaptability Factor Six: Adaptability Maximum 10 points Spouses or common-law partners education 3-5 Minimum one year full-time authorized work in
Canada 5 Minimum two years full-time authorized postsecondary study in Canada 5 Have received points under the Arranged Employment in Canada factor 5 Family relationship in Canada 5 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework The Immigration and Refugee 28 June 2002 The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act comes into Protection Act effect. It emphasizes the importance of immigration to improving Canadian society and economy and creating a culturally diverse nation. The Act also states the governments commitment to reuniting families in Canada, integrating immigrants, and protecting the health and safety of all Canadians. The refugee program plans to fulfill Canadas international legal obligations and give fair consideration to all people being persecuted. The
Act guarantees the policies will be consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It also states that intergovernmental co-operation will be important, as will be greater public awareness of policies. 12 December 2003 The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) is created. It is part of a broader package of programs designed to deal with the security concerns raised by the 11 September attack on the WorldTrade Center. The CBSAs mandate is to facilitate the legal movement of goods and people across Canadas borders while stopping illegal or threatening shipments. 31 December 2003 Introduction of the Permanent Resident Card. The card is required for permanent residents leaving and re-entering Canada. It is designed to increase border security. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Canadian Immigration in 2005: By Admissible Category Economic 56.1% Family 28.5% Refugee 12.8%
Other 2.6% Total Number of Immigrants 262,157 (100%) Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Annual Distribution of Permanent Residents By Source Area 1997-2006 Source Area 1997 1998 1999 2000(%) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 In the 1950s,
84.6% of immigrants were European by birth By the mid 1980s immigrants born in Europe slipped to 28.6% Now its about 15% Source: Citizenship and Immigration Canada 2007, 27. Foster Immigration Africa and the Middle East 18.9 20.0 18.8 19.0 20.6 21.8
21.2 22.0 19.7 21.8 Asia and Pacific 53.4 47.1 49.8 52.7 52.3 50.8 49.9 47.2 51.4 48.4 South and Central America 7.6
7.6 7.6 6.9 7.5 8.0 8.9 9.2 9.1 9.5 Total for the Above 79.9 74.7 76.2 78.6 80.4 80.6 80.0
78.4 80.2 79.7 United States 2.1 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.6 3.2 3.5 4.4 Europe and UK 18.0 22.7 21.1
The Public Policy Framework Canadian Immigration Source Countries 2005 Number of Immigrants China 42,291 India 33,146 Philippines 17,525 Pakistan 13,576 United States 9,262 Columbia 6,031 United Kingdom 5,865 South Korea
5,819 Iran 5,502 France 5,430 Romania 4,964 Sri Lanka 4,690 Russia 3,607 Taiwan 3.092 Hong Kong 1,784 Yugoslavia (Former) 272 Top 10 Source Counties
144,447 Other 117,789 Total 262,236 Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Where do Permanent Residents settle in Canada? Province/Territory 2005 % Nova Scotia 1,929 0.7% Other Atlantic Provinces* 1,918 0.7% Quebec 43,308
16.5% Ontario 140,533 53.6% Manitoba 8,097 3.1% Saskatchewan 2,106 0.8% Alberta 19,399 7.4% British Columbia 44,767 17.1% 160 0.06%
19 >0.001% Territories** Provinces/Territories not stated Total Foster Immigration 262,236 The Public Policy Framework * Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island ** Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement The first-ever Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement was signed in November 2005. The Agreement signals a new era of federal-provincial collaboration in the integration of newcomers to Ontario. . Over the next five years, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) plans to invest $920 million in new funding for settlement and language training programs and services in Ontario. .
The federal and provincial governments will jointly develop settlement and language training strategies (service gaps and optimal ways of delivering and measuring the effectiveness of integration services) . The overall goal of these strategies is to support the successful social and economic integration of immigrants in Ontario. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework New Developments Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs) are also in place with 10 jurisdictions (the Yukon and all provinces except Quebec), either as an annex to a framework agreement or as a stand-alone agreement. Under the PNP, provinces and territories have the authority to nominate individuals as permanent residents to address specific labour market and economic development needs. Canada Experience Class program will allow temporary workers as well and international students to apply to become permanent residents . Aimed at people who want to immigrate to Canada and already have Canadian work experience or Canadian academic credentials. . Perhaps as many as 12,000 18,000. The Immigration Backlog is now report as 900,000. (This effectively means that newcomers face long processing delays, perhaps as along as five years).
Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Policy Challenge: Immigrants Skills Are Underutilized Immigrants tend to start at a significant earnings disadvantage, . In 1980, the income of male immigrants represented 89% of the income of workers born in Canada . In 2000, the income of immigrants fell to 77% relative to the income of workers born in Canada Unemployment rate shows the same trend . In 1981, the unemployment rate of immigrants (7.1%) was lower than the unemployment rate of Canadians (7.9%) . 20 years later, the unemployment rate of immigrants is 12.7% compare to 7.4% for workers born in Canada The economic condition of newcomers in the country has worsened; the immigrants who are most affected belong to racial minorities Annual cost of this problem: $2 billion
Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Salary Gap Disparity in median incomes among recent immigrants Recent Immigrants from 2001 to 2006 University educated, $26,301 Non-university educated, $19,280 Immigrants from 2000 and before: University educated, $37,647 Non-University educated, $29,301 Canadian-born: University educated, $57,695 Non-university educated, $39,586. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Policy Challenge: Immigrants Skills Are Principal Cause:Underutilized the non-recognition of foreign education and foreign experience Canadian workers are increasingly educated, employers have access
to a qualified workforce and prefer to hire Canadianeducated workers with domestic experience Professional associations are often accused of placing too many barriers in front of otherwise qualified immigrants Even with a work authorization given by a professional association, there is still an earnings gap of 15% between newcomers and the Canadian-born limited access to senior/ management positions The earnings gap for workers outside the knowledge economy (mostly regulated by professional association) represents a 30% difference Most newcomers will not be part of the knowledge economy Cultural hegemony is the new head tax to exclude the undesirable, and to perpetuate oppression in Canada. Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework Potential Solutions The Canadian government has recently announced that it will increase immigration yet, most of our newcomers today are visible minorities To help mitigate possible social tensions, governments (federal, provincial and municipal) have a role to play in establishing coherent policy Some potential initiatives include: 1) 2) 3) 4)
5) Better sources of information for immigrants, before and after arrival Bridge-training programs to top-up immigrants skills or fill in the gaps Subsidized workplace internship and mentoring programs More support for credential assessment services to improve labour market effectiveness Improved public awareness of the problems faced by skilled immigrants in integrating into the Canadian labour market and the consequences for Canadian society Foster Immigration The Public Policy Framework
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