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THE CHALLENGES OF TRANSLATING ENGLISH COMPOUNDS INTO ARABIC FOR BETTER OR WORSE by : Rawan Jehad Elbatsh MA Translation Track 220150037 Contrasting Arabic / English compounds : English makes extensive use of compounding; Arabic very limited use. Arabic compounds are phrases with normal word-order, compressed into two or three lexical items. Those patterns of compounds that exist in Arabic are not
particularly productive in making new formations. These patterns are outside the ordinary derivational structure of Arabic. Translation from English a. Before translating primary compounds into Arabic, the student can break up each compound into its component parts, i.e., the roots, prefixes and suffixes; determine the meaning of each component and then determine the meaning of the whole term by adding up the meanings of all .the components starting from the end backwards :The following are examples = appendicitis = appendi + c + itis = +
= photosynthesis = photo + synthesis = + cardiovascular = cardi + o + vascul + ar + + b. English rhyme-motivated compounds are not translated word for word; their connotative meaning is translated, eg: hickety-pickety; stun-gun; flower.power; gang-bang; nitty-gritty; brain-drain c. English compound nouns and compound adjectives should be translated as a unit regardless of the class of the components of the compound. The Arabic equivalent to English compound nouns should be a noun and to compound adjective should .be a modifier
Sometimes the equivalent is a compound noun or a compound modifier and sometimes it is a single .word In some compounds one element modifies the other. The modifying element may precede or it may follow t. In most English compounds the first element modifies the second. Differing classes may occupy either position in the compound, a noun as in woman teacher; an adjectives as in greenhouse; a pronoun as in she goat; a verb as in racehorse. When translating a compound, begin by translating the second element. The first word is the qualifier and the second is the
.:head flower garden garden flower race horse horse race Translation from Arabic a. Arabic compound nouns that consist of a noun and an apposited noun cannot be translated into English. Such nouns are only transliterated. In Most proper names, both elements of the : compound are capitalized ; Abdulla ; Abu Bakr ;Om Kulthoom; Om Hani; Thee Yazan; Muhyiddin .Shajaratu -DDurr ; Mru'ul-kays b. Arabic compound geographical names are translated into their
,the Equator , The Philliphine: English equivalent ,Tabariyya Lake ,the Tropic of Cancer , Khamis Mushait , Kafr Al-Shaikh , Dair yaseen ,Ein Jaloot ,Bethlehem ,Holy Makkah Sharm El-Shaikh. An atlas or a gazeteer may be consulted to find out .the English equvalent .Geographical name are usually capitalized .Both elements of the compound should be capitalized c. Arabic compounds that refer to titles and ranks are translated into their English equivalent titles and .ranks. Literary translation should not be used here ,president ,mayor ,prime minister
,foreign minister ,general staff public, president of the university , prosecutor , vice-president, chief judge , .under-secretary d-Arabic compound particles are not translated into English compound particles, but what is ;translated is the meaning of the particle. which ;of which ; lest should ; but ;whoever that, not ; as long as ; of what, about ;whoever ; to
whenever, the ; until ; whenever if. The context helps in determining the more meaning of each compound particle. Any Arabic dictionary of particles should be consulted for the meaning of each particle. Some particles are translated by relative pronoun some .by a conditional conjunction
Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems (CPSS) Financial Action Task Force (FATF) International Association of Deposit Insurers (IADI) International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) All of the above equally. None of the above
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